Commercial Foods & Culinary Arts flashcards | Quizlet
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  • ganache (gah NAHSH)

    a sauce made by mixing chopped chocolate into boiling hot heavy cream

    garnish

    a decoration added to a dish to make it attractive

    gaufrette (goh-FRET)

    Waffle-shaped, deep-fried potatoes

    gelatin

    an animal protein that when dissolved in a hot liquid adds to a rich mouthfeel

    gelatinization

    when starch combines with hot liquid and swells, acting to thicken the liquid

    genoise (jehn WAHZ)

    a classic European-type of sponge cake that contains some butter and no liquid

    germ

    the smallest part of the grain and a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals, and oils

    giblets

    the offal meats that are commonly obtained from poultry

    glaze

    in cooking, it means to give it a shiny coating

    glutton

    a rubbery substance responsible for giving baked goods structure

    goals

    the aims a person strives to reach

    grading

    evaluating a food against a uniform set of quality standards

    grande cuisine

    an elaborate and time-consuming style of cooking popular in the early 1800s that was often practiced in the homes of the rich

    granite' (grah nee TAY)

    a style of sorbet that is often slightly less sweet than sorbet

    gratiner (grah tehn AY)

    a finishing process that browns the top of a food product

    gravy

    the jus from a roast that has been thickened

    griddle

    a polished stainless steel cooktop on which food is cooked directly without the use of pots or pans

    grill

    a cooking appliance that uses a radiant heat source located below the food

    grilling

    a cooking method that uses radiation from a heat source located below the food

    gustation (guh STAY shun)

    the sense of taste

    halal

    foods that are acceptable according to the dietary regulations of Islam

    harbor

    be home to

    haute (OHT) cuisine

    the highest level of the culinary arts in which the most challenging dishes are prepared

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

    a system that identifies and manages key steps in food handling where contamination is most likely to occur

    heat exhaustion

    a heat-related condition that results when the body loses too much water and salt

    heat stroke

    a severe heat-related condition in which the body's usual ability to deal with heat stress is lost

    heirloom variety

    a plant grown from seeds that have been unchanged for several to many generations

    herbs

    the green leafy parts of aromatic plants that are used to flavor foods

    hierarchy

    an organization based on rank and ability

    high-carbon stainless steel

    the material used to make knife blades that combine the best properties of both carbon and stainless steels

    hollandaise (hahl an DAHZ) sauce

    a hot emulsified sauce that combines egg yolks and warm clarified butter

    home meal replacements

    meals that are consumed at home but professionally prepared elsewhere

    homogenization

    the process that permanently and evenly distributes the butterfat in the milk

    homogenous

    uniform throughout

    hospitality

    welcoming guests and satisfying their needs

    hotel pans

    rectangular stainless steel pans used to hold food in steam tables, warmers, and refrigerators; also called steam table pans

    hybrid

    the offspring of two different plant varieties

    hydrogenation

    the chemical process that changes liquid oil to a solid fat

    icebox cookies

    cookies made by forming cookie dough into a log, square, triangle, or other shape; the dough is wrapped in plastic or parchment paper and refrigerated; when fully chilled, the dough sliced into individual cookies and baked

    incomplete protein

    a protein that is missing one or more of the indispensable amino acids

    indigenous (ihn DIH gehn us)

    foods that are native or traditional to the particular geographic region or ethnic population

    individually quick frozen (IQF)

    fruit or fruit pieces that are flash frozen before packing so that they retain their original shape

    induction burner

    a cooktop that uses electromagnetic energy to heat special pots and pans made from magnetic metals such as steel, iron, nickel, and alloys

    infection

    illness resulting from ingestion of live bacteria

    infuse

    introduce

    inspection

    an assurance of safety and wholesomeness, not an indication of quality

    instant rice

    rice that has been fully cooked and then freeze-dried

    intoxication

    illness resulting from ingestion of toxins left behind by bacteria

    invoice

    a list of the quantities of products and their prices that are being delivered

    issuing

    a process for drawing products from food storage

    julienne (joo lee EHN)

    a stick cut measuring 2 x 1/8 x 1/8 inches (50 x 3 x 3 mm)

    jus (zhoo)

    the deglazed dripplings of a roast that are strained and seasoned

    jus lie' (JOO lee AY)

    a reduced brown stock that is thickened with a cornstarch or arrowroot slurry

    kitchen hood fire suppression system

    an installed, comprehensive fire-fighting system that automatically puts out a fire before it spreads

    kneading

    repeatedly folding and pressing dough after it is mixed to develop gluton

    kosher

    Jewish dietary law

    labor cost

    all the expense involved in maintaining a foodservice staff such as wages, benefits, and payroll taxes

    lactose

    the main carbohydrate in milk that can cause digestive problems for some people

    large dice

    a dice cut measuring 3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 inches (2 x 2 x 2 cm)

    leach

    seep

    leavening

    the process in which gases are trapped in dough creating small bubbles that give baked goods a light and airy texture

    legumes

    a group of vegetables that includes beans, peas, and lentils

    liason (lee AY zun)

    a mixture of egg yolks and cream that is used to thicken liquids

    lipids

    energy-dense nutrients that include fats and oils, as well as other fat-like substances such as cholesterol

    living wage

    a rate of pay that allows someone working full-time to support his or her family above the poverty level

    loss

    when expenses are greater than the sales

    low-flow aerators

    reduce the amount of water that comes from a faucet while directing the water stream so as not to reduce its effectiveness

    lucrative

    wealth producing

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