Cooking Vocabulary**** flashcards | Quizlet
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  • dry heat cooking

    Food is prepared and cooked without added liquid with or without fat if cooking meat used for tender cuts of meat.

    steam

    Food cooks over, but not directly in boiling liquid.

    simmer

    food is completely submerged in a liquid that is kept below the boiling point at about 185 degrees. This is for less tender items.

    stew

    Techniques are similar to braising, but the main food item is first cut into bite-sized pieces that are either blanched or seared.

    Moist-heat cooking

    Uses liquid or steam to cook food if cooking meat used for less tender cuts.

    barding

    Marinating food to give it added moisture. Usually done by adding fat to the exterior of meat.

    braise

    Food item is first seared in hot oil then slowly cooked tightly covered in a small amount of liquid, and then finished in the oven or on the stove top until it is tender.

    beat

    Thoroughly mix food using a vigorous over and over motion.

    caramelize

    Brown the sugar using heat. The sugar may be a natural part of a food such as onions.

    barbecue

    Food is basted repeatedly with sauce during grilling.

    grill

    A very simple dry-heat method that is excellent for cooking smaller pieces of food. Heat source is under the food being cooked.

    dredge

    Coat food with a dry ingredient such as flour or bread crumbs.

    drain

    Remove excess liquid by pouring it off or by placing food in a strainer.

    fold

    Gentle mixing method used for delicate or whipped ingredients, using a rubber scraper or wooden spoon.

    egg wash

    Mixture of beaten eggs(whole eggs, yolks or whites) and a liquid, usually milk or water, used to coat an item before baking or frying.

    garnish

    Decorate a food or dish with a small colorful food such as parsley or a lemon slice.

    grease

    Spread a thin layer of unsalted shortening in a pan or use a cooking spray that prevents sticking and makes food easier to remove.

    pare

    cut off a very thin layer of vegetable or fruit peel.

    mis en place

    Process of assembling all ingredients and equipment necessary for the preparation of a recipe.

    preheat

    Turn on an appliance (oven, electric skillet, etc...) ahead of time so that it will be a the right temperature when the food is ready to be cooked

    score

    Make shallow straight cuts in the surface of food such as steak, to tenderize it; or shallow cuts in the skin of a vegetable such as a cucumber as a decoration.

    strain

    Separate solid food pieces from a liquid using a strainer or colander.

    combination cooking

    Uses both dry and moist heat.

    baste

    Moisten food during cooking with pan drippings sauce or other liquid

    broil

    A rapid cooking method that uses high heat from a source located above the food.

    roast

    Cook food using indirect heat in a closed environment requires a longer cooking time than baking.

    bake

    Cook food in a closed oven without liquid.

    saute

    Cooks food rapidly in a small amount of fat over relatively high heat.

    stir fry

    Cook food quickly in a small amount of fat or oil over high heat while constantly stirring sometimes done in a wok.

    deep fry

    Also called French frying. Food is breaded or batter coated immersed in hot fat and fried until done.

    sift

    Put dry ingredients, such as flour, through a sifter to remove lumps and give it a smoother consistency.

    whip

    Add air into a mixture by beating it vigorously, making it light and fluffy.

    pan fry

    Coated with batter or breading and then cooked in an oil over less intense heat.

    sweat

    Cook an item usually vegetable sin a small amount of fat in a covered pan until it soften and releases moisture.

    cream

    Beat together ingredients, such as shortening and sugar until soft and creamy.

    chill

    Refrigerate or place food in an ice bath until it is cold.

    butterfly

    Cut of meat or seafood that is split down the middle and looks like the wings of a butterfly.

    boil

    Cooks food in a liquid that has reached the boiling point.

    blanch

    Variation of boiling. Food is placed in a pot of cold water and liquid is then brought to a boil. Sometimes used for vegetable before freezing.

    al dente

    Cook pasta or vegetables until they are tender but still firm.

    brown

    Cook food briefly until the surface turns brown, sometimes in a skillet using hot fat, in the oven or in a broiler.

    poach

    Food is completely submerged in a liquid that is kept at an constant, moderate temperature below boiling 160-180 degrees.

    as purchased

    The amount of product before it has been trimmed and cut and before being used in recipes.

    conversion factor

    Desired yield/original yield=conversion factor, which is the number by which to multiply the ingredients.

    conversion chart

    A list of food items showing the expected or average, shrinkage from AP amount to EP amount.

    edible portion

    The amount left after vegetables have been trimmed and cut and before being used in recipes.

    shallow poach

    Cooks food by using a combination of steam and a liquid bath.

    customary unit

    The most commonly used system of measurement in the US.

    metric unit

    Measurements based on multiples of 10

    standardized recipe

    Institutional recipes must follow a format that is clear to anyone who uses them.

    volume

    The amount of space an ingredient takes up.

    yield

    The number of servings or amount the recipe makes.

    Bain-marie

    A hot water bath used to hold hot food and keep it at a safe temperature.

    clarify

    Removing the mild solids from milk.

    herbs

    Leaves stems of flowers of an aromatic plant.

    spices

    The bark, roots, seeds buds or berries of an aromatic plant.

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