Culinary Arts: Red Meats flashcards | Quizlet

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  • At what age is beef typically butchered?

    Cattle over 12 months of age

    At what age is veal typically butchered?

    Cattle less than 3 months of age

    At what age is lamb typically butchered?

    Sheep less than one year old

    At what age is mutton typically butchered?

    Sheep over two years of age

    At what age is pork typically butchered?

    Swine that are 7-12 months in age

    Red meat is a good source of what nutrients?

    Protein, iron, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin.

    What are variety meats?

    edible parts of an animal besides the muscles

    Liver is an excellent source of what particular nutrient?


    In the chapter, what recommendations were made to limit an individual's intake of fat?

    choose lean cuts more often, save ones with marbling for special occasions

    What specific cooking methods are considered heart healthy?

    Panbroiling and broiling.

    Describe the appearance of a top quality piece of beef.

    Lots of marbling, cherry red in color, fat is creamy white and firm, few bones

    What is the difference between hamburger and ground beef?

    Hamburger will often have added fat and other things added, and ground beef doesn't.

    What is the difference between grading and inspection?

    Grading is not required, and inspection is. Grading predicts taste appeal, and inspection insures that the meat was butchered or processed in sanitary conditions.

    Which one, grading or inspection, is required by law?


    List the four factors for which beef is graded.

    The four factors are marbling, maturity, texture, and appearance.

    What are the top three quality grades for beef?

    Prime, choice and select.

    Which of the top three grades is mainly sold to stores?


    How are the lower grades of beef usually used?

    They usually used in manufactured meat products.

    Define marbling.

    The flecks of fat throughout the cut.

    Define trim.

    Trim is what is left after the cuts are removed from the carcass.

    Beef fat referred to as __________.

    suet or tallow

    Pork fat is referred to as ___________.


    What particular bone shapes indicate that the meat is tender before it is cooked?

    The rib bone, T-bone, and wedge bone.

    In what wholesale sections would you expect to find these bones shapes?

    The rib, short loin, and sirloin.

    Identify the bone shapes that indicate the meat is tough before it is cooked.

    Round bone and blade bone.

    In what wholesale sections would you expect to find these tough bones shapes?

    Chuck, shank, round, and chunk.

    What are the two main categories for cooking meat?

    Dry heat and moist heat.

    List 4 examples of dry heat cooking methods.

    Panbroiling, broiling, panfrying and roasting.

    List 3 examples of moist heat cooking methods.

    Braising, cooking in liquid, and pressure cooking.

    How much meat should be allowed per person if the meat is boneless?

    1/4 lb to 1/3 lb

    How much meat should be allowed per person if the mat has a small amount of bone?

    1/3 lb to 1/2 lb

    How much meat should be allowed per person if the mat has a large amount of bone?

    1/2 lb to 3/4 lb

    What two factors affect the cost per serving of meat?

    The amount of waste, and the tenderness of the mat.

    What is connective tissue?

    It is tissue that hold muscle together in an animal.

    What is the relationship between connective tissue and meat tenderness?

    The softer the connective tissue fibers, the more tender the meat.

    What are the two proteins in connective tissues?

    Elastin and collagen.

    Which protein can be softened through cooking?


    Within what time period should refrigerated fresh meats be used?

    1-4 days.

    Identify/describe characteristics of properly cooked meat.

    Not shrunk, juicy, easy to carve correct internal temperature.

    What are cooking losses and how can they affect the appearance and eating quality of meats?

    Cooking losses include fat, water, and other volatile substances that evaporate from the surface of the meat. The reduce serving sizes.

    List 4 methods that could be used to tenderize tough cuts of meat.

    Pounding, grinding, meat tenderizers, and marinating.

    Some methods for tenderizing meats are mechanical methods and some are chemical methods. What is the difference?

    Mechanical breaks things down by physicalling pounding, grinding, etc. Chemical breaks down connective tissue.

    Name 4 mechanical methods for tenderizing red meats.

    Grinding, pounding, cubing or scoring.

    Name 2 chemical methods for tenderizing red meats.

    Marinade or meat tenderizer.

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