Culinary Arts in College flashcards | Quizlet
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  • Abbacchio

    an Italian name for a milk-fed baby lamb.

    Abernethy biscuit

    a mildly flavored Scottish biscuit that purportedly takes its name from Dr.John Abernethy (1764-1831).

    absinthe

    strong green liqueur flavored with wormwood and anise.

    absolute alcohol

    a pure, water-free alcohol, with specific gravity of 0.79359; boiling point 173 F (78 F).

    aca

    a type of corn (maize) beverage brewed in Peru since at least 200 BC. It was both consumed by the common people and offered to the gods.

    acephala

    a name used for mollusks, such as the oyster, mussel and scallop, which do not have a distinct head.

    acerola

    acid red or yellow cherry-like fruit of a tropical American shrub very rich in vitamin C.

    acetic acid

    a clear acid that gives vinegar its distinctive taste, formed by bacteria's effect on the alcohol in wine, beer or cider.

    achar

    a word used in india to refer to various types of salted or pickled relishes,which can be either sweet or hot.

    achiote seed

    the seed of the annatto tree, Bixa orellana, bright or rusty red color. slightly bitter taste.

    acid

    Any of a large group of substances that are essential to the working of the body and are found in many foods.

    acid drops

    an english acidic hard candy or boiled sweet.

    acidophilus milk

    also acid rinse. This is water to which a small amount of some acid, such as vinegar or lemon juice, has been added to prevent discoloration in fruits and vegetables, such as apples and artichokes.

    acitron

    the candied flesh or stem of the biznaga cactus, Echinocactus grandis, used in Mexican cooking.

    acorda

    a Portuguese garlic bread porridge.

    acorn

    a nut borne by the oak tree of the genus Quercus.

    acorn barnacle

    a small shellfish, Balanus balanoides,which lives on rocks in sea areas.

    active dry yeast

    a widely available form of dehydrated yeast sold as dry granules.

    ade

    a drink, such as lemonade, made by mixing citrus juice with water and sugar.

    adjust

    to modify the seasoning in a dish, especially just before serving and to the cook's individual taste.

    aettekees

    also ettekees. A Belgian cheese whose name is a dialectal corruption ofhardkees, meaning "hard cheese."

    affinage

    a French word that means both the art of ripening and curling a cheese.

    afternoon tea

    also cream tea. A quintessentially British, comparatively light afternoon meal, consisting of tea, sandwiches (especially cucumber sandwiches), scones and cakes with cream fillings.

    aftersmell

    an odor sensation that lingers after swallowing any alcoholic beverage.

    aftertaste

    the taste, odor and sensation that linger after swallowing a food or beverage, particularly alcoholic beverages.

    age

    to store food or spirits under controlled conditions as a means of improving the flavor.

    aioli

    a garlic mayonnaise (sometimes called pommade) made in Provence since the Middle Ages, usually served with boiled cod, boiled eggs, snails and various steamed vegetables.

    a la carte

    a French term meaning "by the menu," indicating that each item is priced separately, as opposed to table d'hote or
    prix fixe, meaning a meal of several courses offered at a fixed price.

    a la mode

    a French phrase meaning, literally,"in the current fashion."

    albacore

    also long-finned tuna, white-meat tuna.

    albedo

    a name given to the white inner peel of oranges and other citrus fruit.

    albumen

    an old-fashioned word for the white of an egg.

    albumin

    the name for a certain group of water-soluble proteins that coagulate when heated.

    al burro

    a Italian style of serving pasta, simply tossed with butter.

    alcohol

    ethyl alcohol or ethanol, the only alcohol suitable for drinking.

    alcoholmetry

    the percentage of absolute alcohol in any spirit, given either by volume or weight.

    aldehyde

    any of a large class of organic compounds derived from alcohols through dehydrogenation (oxidation) and containing the grouping (or radical) CHO.

    al dente

    an Italian term literally meaning "to the tooth," used to describe pasta that is not overcooked or soft, but with a bit of resistance in the bite.

    ale

    traditionally, a non-hopped malt beverage (also called spiced ale) as opposed to hopped beer.

    Alfredo sauce

    a pasta sauce made with cream, butter and Parmesan cheese, a specialty of the Alfredo restaurant in Rome, most often served with fettuccine noodles.

    al fresco

    from the Italian for "fresh" or "cool," referring to dining outdoors on a restaurant patio,backyard terrace or picnic.

    aliolo

    the Spanish term for the French aioli, a mayonnaise strongly flavored with garlic, generally served with seafood.

    alleluia

    a pastry usually made for Easter, taking its name from the liturgical Latin form of the Hebrew word halleluyah, meaning "praise the Lord."

    alligator

    this lizard-like reptile yields three types of meat: tender white tail meat resembling veal; slightly tougher, pinker body meat; and dark tail meat, which is tough and used only for braising.

    allspice

    the dried, unripe berries of Pimenta dioice,a tree native to the West Indies and South America but grown predominantly in Jamaica.

    almond

    the kernel of the fruit of the almond tree, Prunus amygdalus, a very close relative of the plum and peach.

    almond extract

    a flavoring made from the oil of bitter almonds mixed with alcohol.

    almond paste

    a mixture of ground blanched almonds, sugar and glycerin used in a variety of confections, both slightly more coarse and less sweet than marzipan.

    aluminum foil

    a thin pliable sheet of aluminum that can withstand both moisture, air and odors.

    amaretti

    small, round, crisp Italian macaroons flavored with bitter almond.

    amaretto

    an almond-flavored liqueur made from apricot pits.

    ambrosia

    The word also refers to a cold fruit dessert with coconut and,in Mexico, a sweet-scented herb whose leaves are used in cold beverages, like mint.

    amino acids

    any of a group of organic compounds occuring naturally in plant and animal tissues, and forming the basic constituents of proteins.

    ancho chile

    a large deep purple dried chile pepper, fruity in flavor, often used in Mexican cooking.

    anchovy

    a small fish. they are rarely eaten fresh but are generally salt-cured and canned in oil.

    anchovy paste

    made from anchovies, vinegar, spices and water, sold in tubes, used in cooking or as a spread.

    angel food cake

    American sponge cake is baked in a tall ring pan, made so light and airy from many egg whites, it's said to have the sublimeness of angels, hence its names.

    Animal Cracker

    a trademarked cookie developed by Walter Wilson Company for the opening of the Philadelphia Zoo in 1870.

    anise

    a plant, which have a distinctive sweet licorice taste.

    anisette

    a clear, very sweet liqueur made with aniseeds, tasting of licorice.

    antioxidant

    a substance that reduces the browning process of fruits and vegetables when exposed to air.

    antipasto, pl. antipasti

    An appetizer composed from an assortment of cured meats, cheeses, olives, fish and raw or marinated vegetables.

    apple

    the fruit of a tree of the genus. there are many different varieties.

    apple brandy

    brandy distilled from apples.

    apple butter

    a thick reddish brown preserve made from apples,cider, sugar and spices, used like jam as a spread for bread.

    apple-glazed ham

    a Pennsylvanian specialty, a fully cooked boneless ham with an apple glaze, usually made of apple jelly, lemon juice and cloves.

    applesauce

    a puree of stewed apples, smooth or chunky, often sweetened with sugar and spiced.

    apple turnover

    a puff pastry stuffed with apple called Apfel im Schlafrock, or "apple in its bathrobe."

    apricot

    the fruit of a tree. The name apricot comes from the Latin word for "precocious", because the apricot ripens earlier than other summer fruits.

    apricot brandy

    brandy distilled from apricots.

    Abrorio rice

    an Italian-grown short-grain rice traditionally used in making risotto because its high starch content gives the dish it characteristic creaminess.

    aromatic

    any of several fragrant or spicy plants used to flavor food or drink.

    aromatic rice

    a term used for those varieties of rice with a nutty flavor and aroma.

    arrowroot

    a dry, chalky and nutritive starch used as food.

    artichoke

    thistle flower head whose petal bases and "heart" we eat today.

    articial sweeteners

    non-nutritive, highly sweet substitutes for sugar.

    ascorbic acid

    vitamin C, used as an antioxidant to slow down spoilage, especially to retain the red color of fresh and preserved meat.

    asparagus

    the young shoots of an almost leafless plant, a member of the lily family.

    avocado

    high in vitamin C, thiamin and riboflavin, avocados are a good source of protein, with higher fat content than most vegetables.

    avocado oil

    usually extracted only from damaged fruit due to the high demand for the fruit crop. it is used mainly as cooking oil as it has a high smoke point.

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