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  • How many cooking methods?

    12 toltal

    What are the cooking methods?

    There are 6 dry ( 3dry without fat and 3 dry with fat )
    4 moist and 2 combos.

    What are the 3 cooking methods dry without fat?

    1-Baking, roasting-and even cooking .
    2-Broiling,Grilling.

    What is the difference between baking and roasting?

    Baking and roasting unchangeable and the mean same thing.

    Broiling

    Heat comes from above.

    Grilling

    Heat below.

    What are the 3 cocking methods with fat?

    1-Sauté, shallow or pan frying, and deep frying.

    Sauté

    Is to cook on high heat with low fat about-1/8 inch or less.

    Deep fat frying

    Is to cover the item with the fat ( hot fat 300F -380F .

    What are 2deep frying methods?

    Basket and swimming.

    What are the 4 moist cooking methods?

    1- boiling in high temperature water (212"F rapid bubbles)
    2- simmer in a temperature (185"F-205"F gentle bubbles)
    3- poaching in temperature (160-180"F random bubbles)
    4- steaming like [ fish papillote].
    All 4 methods are low calorie.

    What is the food comprise of?

    Is a comprise of proteins - carbs- fats - H2O- mineral and vitamins.

    Proteins :

    Coagulate( solid or firm)

    Carbohydrates:

    Caramelization/ gelatiz

    Fats:

    Melt.

    Water( H2O):

    Evaporate.

    Describe moist heat cooking methods:

    Transfers heat to food through liquid or steam, for food products with more subtle flavor, soft tester,
    Poaching , simmering, boiling, steaming, braising , blanching.

    Describe poaching, simmering, & boiling :

    Are all the same cooking method , but at different temperatures.
    Poaching :160"F-180"F
    Simmering :180"F-205"F
    Boiling:212"F.

    Describe steaming :

    Water heated past 212"F, becoming steam, gentle, delicate, moist
    No agitation, so retains shape of food, retains nutrients,and color .

    Describe braising :

    Begins with dry heat and finish with moist heat . First , sear or sauté until the item turns brown then add liquid, and cover & shallow simmer for long period low heat , 180-205"F). . Though cuts of meat can be braised . Retain shape ,moist,tender,robust flavor.

    Describe blanching:

    Cooking food quickly in hot liquid and then Cooling it in a cold liquid . Retains color of the food.

    What are some equipment pieces?

    Steam jacketed kettles& steamers

    Describe broiling and grilling :

    Uses direct and radiant heat. Heat conducted through air grilling means the heat source is below the food .Broiling means the heat source is above the food.

    Describe roasting and baking:

    Cooking by using hot, dry air in an oven .roasting and baking are the same thing ,just that roasting generally refers to meat / poultry and baking to fish/ pastry/ vegetables.temp of at least 300"F.

    Describe sauteing

    Very hot pan with a small amount of fat .atype of frying method 1/8 .

    Braising, stewing:

    Are long cooking method.

    Describe deep fat frying:

    Basket frying :is for raw or breaded items.
    Swimming light / submerge : is for buttered items.

    Why we flour the chicken before deep in egg wash?

    Flour protect and seal the chichen

    Good French fries:

    First: blanch in oil( partially cook)
    325"F( edge are golden)
    Second:double fry at (370"F) then salt immediately

    What kind of potatoes best for fries?

    Russet potatoes

    What are the three ways transferred of heat?

    1- conduction: the heat is transferred from one source to another.
    2- convection: - natural- boiling
    - mechanical- oven
    3- radiation: - infrared - broiler
    - microwave

    Mise en place:

    Have everything at hand that is needed to prepare
    "Everything in its place"

    Breading:

    To coat any item with bread crumbs or any other dry ingredient
    Such as nuts, corn meal semolina ..etc

    What is cooking?

    To transfer energy from a heat source that alters(change) the foods molecular structure - 1-texture
    2-flavor
    3 -aroma
    4- appearance

    Slice:

    To cut in to broad thin pieces

    Chop:

    To cut in to pieces where uniform size and shape are note important

    Coarse chop:

    Usually 3/4 inch x 3/4 inch x3/4 inch

    Dice:

    To cut an item in to a cube ( uniform size and shape are important ) ; items must be sliced in to uniform sized { sticks } before cutting. In to a dice

    Fine julienne:

    Stick shape measuring 1/16 inch 1/16 inch x 2 inches

    Fine dice ( brunoise):

    Fine dice measuring 1/16 inch x 1/16 inch x 1/16( used for garnish)

    Julienne:

    Stick shape measuring 1/8 x 1/8 x 2 inches , also known as " allumette" when used with potatoes .

    Brunoise :

    1/8 x 1/8 x 1/8

    Batonnet:

    A stick shape ( think of a French fry shape) measuring 1/4 x 1/4 x 2

    Small dice :

    1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4

    Medium dice:

    1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2

    Large dice:

    3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4

    Chiffonade:

    " ribbons" used to cut soft leafy herbs or vegetables ,stake leaves and roll lengthwise ; cut opposite and unroll"ribbons"

    Minced / finely chop:

    t0 chop to very small pieces ( usually garlic , shallots,herbs) where uniform size and shape are not important .

    Tourner

    "To turn " in French: football shape with seven equal sides and blunt ends ( usually root vegetables) .

    What should be done / start grilling ?

    Oil the grill (use half of onion or potatoes)

    Grilling :

    The middle is the hottest part of the grill , the outsides of the grill usually is cooler .

    How to grill chicken breast ?

    Put the chicken piece on number 10 of clock after the white line start to appear in the side of the Breast turn it to number 2 to make a grill mark for presentation , because that the side the guest should see.

    How to grill fish ?

    All depend / the presentation side when skin is cooked is the bone side .

    How to use the four grill corners for cooking ?

    Middle part is the hottest / medium burger, the bottom right side of the grill / well done burger, the above right side,for the bottom left side of the grill should be used for /well done burger , and the above left side is for / rare burgers .

    Sugar:

    Fiber / carbohydrates

    Tomatoes concasee :

    " to pound " to seed ,peel, chop small .

    Roasting a pepper:

    On the stove , grill ,or broiler .
    Blacken or char skin - put in to a bowl ( paper bag )
    - cover with plastic
    -Moist paper towel / slid skin of .

    Bacon:

    Belly of the pig .

    Rice :

    Seed from the grass. The shorter the grain is the more starch in it

    How to cook rice?

    -2 part liquids to 1 part rice.
    The best way to cook rice is in the oven because of it surrounding heat .

    Risotto method:

    Rice preparation ,native Italian ,that is soft creamy consistency when finished

    Endosperm

    The largest part of the grain , 2 high is made up almost entirely of carbohydrates

    Rice pilaf method:

    Rice dish made by sautéing grain in oil or butter before the liquids is added. { Heat oil ,add onions , add rice ,coat in oil , add water and salt , bring to boil ,cover and drop the heat to low}

    Boiling vegetables:

    If it grows above the ground start the cooking in boiling water.
    Or ,if it's root vegetables ( grows below the ground ) start boiling the vegetables in cold water to be cook evenly.

    Pasta:

    Italian word means paste.
    Pasta could be dried or fresh.
    *Different flavors - types of flours - wheat- buckwheat - semolina...etc
    * additional ingredient such as ,Basil,sun dried tomatoes,smoked paprika.etc.
    Italians use wheat flour for their pasta

    Couscous:

    Type of pasta , and it shaped to three different sizes :
    Moroccan= small size couscous
    Israeli= medium size couscous
    Lebanese= bigger size couscous.

    Cooking pasta:

    Water is salty the ( sea).

    Al dente:

    To the tooth , firm.

    Large egg:

    1.67 oz/ white is .1 oz and York .67 oz

    How to cut chicken?

    8 parts/ 2 wing,2 breast, which are white meat and
    2 thighs ,2 legs / dark meat.

    Myoglobin:

    A protein that is store oxygen in the muscle of the animal to allow it to move

    Cooking chicken

    Always keep bones in the chicken while it's cooking ,and cook chicken on high temperature first then lower.
    * cook chicken with breast down to absorb the juices when it's cooking

    Roaster :

    Chicken 3 to 4?months old

    Fryer:

    3 months old .

    Trussing:

    " to tie"

    Why truss chicken?

    1- for even cooking.
    2-keeps moisture in.
    3- presentation.

    Spatchcock:

    Remove the backbone .

    Mirepoix:

    Ratio of 50% onion,25% carrots, 25% celery.

    Compound butter:

    Softened butter, lemon zest , minced shallots,and thyme.

    Liquids measurement:

    ...

    1 cup :

    8 oz

    1/2cup:

    4oz

    1/4cup:

    2oz

    1 Tablespoon:

    .50 oz

    1 pint :

    16 oz = 2 cups

    1 quart:

    32 oz = 4 cups =2 pints

    1/2 Gallon:

    64 oz = 2 quarts

    1 Gallon:

    128 oz = 4 quarts

    Tablespoon:

    3 teaspoons

    1 teaspoon :

    60 drops

    1 gallon :

    32 gill

    Gill:

    2 cups

    Dry measurements:

    ...

    1 pinch:

    1/8 teaspoon or less

    16 ounces or 1 pint:

    1 pound

    Pint:

    1/2 quart =1/8 gallon =1/16 perk = 1/64 bushel

    Quart:

    2 pints = 1/4 gallon = 1/8 perk = 1/32 bushel

    Gallon:

    8 pints = 4 quart = 1/2 perk = 1/8 bushel

    Perk:

    16 pints = 8 quart = 2 gallon = 1/4 bushels

    Bushel:

    64 pints = 32quart = 8 gallons = perk

    ...

    ...

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