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  • Foodborne Illness

    Illness carried or transmitted to people by food.

    Foodborne Illness Outbreak

    An incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food.

    Immune System

    The body's defense against illness.

    Contamination

    Presence of harmful substances in food.

    Biological Hazards

    Illness-causing microorganisms. Examples are plant, mushroom or seafood toxins.

    Chemical Hazards

    Examples include cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and toxic metals.

    Physical Hazards

    Foreign objects that accidentally get into food. Examples are hair, dirt, bandages, metal staples, and broken glass. Naturally occurring objects, such as bones.

    Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards

    The three major categories or types of hazards to food safety.

    Time-Temperature Abuse

    Food has been time-temperature abused any time it has been allowed to remain too long at a temperature favorable to the growth of foodborne microorganisms.

    Cross-Contamination

    Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another.

    Personal Hygiene

    Habits that include keeping the hands, hair, and body clean and wearing clean & appropriate uniforms. Avoiding unsanitary actions, and reporting illness/injury.

    True or False. A Foodborne-illness outbreak has occured when two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food.

    True.

    True or False. People on chemo have a higher risk of contracting a foodborne illness.

    True.

    Ture or False. Adults are more likely than pre-school age children to become ill from contaminated food.

    False.

    True or False. A foodborne-illness outbreak can raise an establishment's insurance premium.

    True.

    True or False. A foodborne-illness can occur if food is not cooled properly.

    True.

    What are the potential costs associated with foodborne illness outbreaks?

    Loss of customers, Negative media, Lawsuits & legal fees, Increased insurance, Loss of reputation, Lowered employee morale, Employee absenteeism, Staff retraining.

    What are the most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness?

    Purchasing from unsafe sources, Failing to cook food adequately, Holding food at incorrect temperatures, Using contaminated equipment, Poor personal hygiene.

    What are the keys to food safety?

    Controlling time & temp, Practicing good hygiene, Preventing cross-contamination, Purchasing from approved suppliers, Cleaning & sanitizing properly.

    Why are elderly people at a higher risk for fodborne illness?

    Their immune systems are weekened with age.

    What are the three categories of food safety hazards?

    Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards.

    For a foodborne illness to be considered an "outbreak", a minimum of how many people must experience the same illness after eating the same food?

    Two

    Acording to the CDC, the most common risk factors that cause foodborne illnesses are:

    1) failing to cook food adequately, 2) holding food at incorrect temperatures, 3) using contaminated equipment, 4) practicing poor personal hygiene and 5)purchasing food from unsafe sources.

    Microorganisims

    small, living organisms that can be seen only through a microscope.

    Pathogens

    microorganisms that cause illness

    Toxins

    poisons produced by pathogens, plants or animals.

    FAT TOM

    Food, Acidity, Temperature - Time, Oxygen, Moisture

    TDZ (temperature danger zone)

    Range where pathogens grow well in food (between 41 deg and 135 deg)

    Leading cause of foodborne illness is

    Viruses

    How are viruses transmitted?

    From person to person, people to food, and from people to food-contact surfaces.

    Most important measure to prevent foodborne illness caused by viruses is:

    Personal hygiene / practicing personal hygiene.

    Bacteria

    single celled, living microorganisms that can spoil food and cause illness.

    Spore

    Form that some bacteria can take to protect themselves when nutrients are not available.

    Parasite

    Organism that needs to live in a host organism to survive.

    Fungi

    Ranging in size from microscopic, single-celled organisms to very large, multicellular organisms. Most often cause food to spoil. Molds, yeast, and mushrooms are examples.

    Mold

    Type of fungus that causes food spoilage. Some produce toxins that can cause foodborne illness.

    Yeast

    Type of fungus that causes food spoilage.

    Four types of pathogens are:

    Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, and Parasites.

    What food items are better able to support the growth of pathogens?

    Dairy, Eggs, Meat, Pultry, Fish and shellfish, baked bpotates, heat-treated plant food such as rice or beans, tofu, sprouts, melons and tomatoes, untreated garlic mixtures.

    What two FAT TOM conditions are easiest for an establishment to control?

    Time and Temperature.

    What measures should be taken to prevent a seafood-specific foodborne illness?

    Use only approved suppliers.

    How can plant toxinsbe prevented from getting into food?

    Use only approved vendors. Cook and hold coorectly.

    Foodborne pathogens grow well at temperatures...

    between 41 F and 135 F.

    FAT TOM stands for Food, Acidity,Time Temperature, Oxygen and...

    Moisture

    Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready-to-eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage?

    Hepatitis A

    True or False. If you transfer a chemical to a new container, you must label it with the name of the chemical.

    True.

    True or False. Delivery peopleand service contractors are possible food defense risks.

    True.

    True or False. Milk is a common food allergen.

    True.

    Biological contaminants

    Leading cause of foodborne illness. (Includes viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi)

    Chemical contaminants

    Responsible for many cases of foodborne illness. Can come from a variety of substances normally found in the establishment.

    Toxic-metal poisoning

    Illness caused when toxic metals are leached from utensils or equipment containing them.

    Physical contaminants

    When objects get in food. Examples are, metal shavings from cas, staples fom cartons, glass from broken lightbulbs or dishes, blades from plastic or rubber spatulas, bristles from pastry brushes, fingernails, hair, bandages, dirt, bones, jewelry, fruit pits, twist ties, etc.

    Please list 6 common food allergens

    Dairy, Egg, Fish and shellfish, Wheat, Soy, and Peanuts and tree nuts.

    Cross-contact

    Allergens are transferred from food containing an allergen to the food served to the customer.

    What are some ways to keep chemicals from contaminating food?

    1) Store chemicals away from food, utensils,and equip. 2) Follow mfgr directions when using chemicals. 3) Be careful when using chemicals while food is being prepared. 4) Label chemical containers when transferring a chemical to a new container. 5) Only use lubricants that are made for food equipment.

    What measures can be taken to help ensure the safety of customers with food allergies?

    1) Describe menu items 2) Identify ingredients 3) Suggest simple items 4) wash, rinse, and sanitize cookware before preparing food 5) Wash hands and change gloves before preparing food. 6) Assign specific equipment for preparing food for customers with allergens.

    Eggs and peanuts are dangerous for people with which condition?

    Food allergies.

    Cooking tomato sauce in a copper pot can cause which foodborne illness?

    Toxic-metal poisoning.

    Itching and tightening of the throat are symptoms of what?

    Food allergy.

    To prevent food allergens from being transferred to food, ...

    clean and sanitize utensils before use.

    What three points should a food defense program focus on to prevent possible threats to food?

    Human elements, building interior, building exterior

    True or False. During handwashing, foodhandlers must vigorously scrub their hands and arms for five seconds.

    False. Scrub hands and arms vigorously for ten to fifteen seconds.

    True or False. Gloves should be changed before beginning a different task.

    True.

    True or False. Foodhandlers must wash their hands after smoking.

    True.

    True or False. Hand antiseptics should only be used before handwashing.

    False. Antiseptics, if used, should only be used after proper handwashing - never in place of it.

    True or False. With some illnesses, a person may infect others before showing any symptoms.

    True.

    True or False. Simple acts such as rubbing an ear or scratching the scalp can contaminate food.

    True.

    Please list the components of a good personal hygiene program.

    1) Following hygienic hand practices. 2) Maintaining personal cleanliness. 3) Wearing clean and appropriate uniforms and following dress codes. 4) Avoiding certain habits and actions. 5) Maintaining good health. 6) Reporting illnesses.

    Five steps for proper handwashing:

    1) Wet hands and arms with running water as hot as you can stand 2) Apply soap 3) Scrub hands and arms vigorously for ten to fifteen seconds 4) Rinse hands and arms thoroughly under running water 5) Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand dryer.

    True or False. Wounds on hands should be covered with a clean bandage and a glove or finger cot.

    True.

    Finger cot

    Protective covering used to cover a properly bandaged cut or wound on the finger.

    True or False. Gloves can be used in place of handwashing.

    False. Gloves must never be used in place of handwashing.

    Hair restraint

    Device used to keep a foodhandler's hair away from food and to keep the individual from touching it.

    True or False. If a food handler has a sore throat with a fever, he or she must be restricted from working with or around food.

    True.

    True or False. If a food handler had a sore throat with a fever, he or she is restricted from working with food for 12 hours.

    False. The food handler can work with or around food when he or she has a written release from a medical practitioner.

    True or False. Food handlers who have had jaundice for less than seven days must be excluded from the operation.

    True. They must have a written release from a medical practioner and approval from the regulatory authority before returning to work.

    What are some basic work-attire requirements for employees?

    1) Wear a clean hat or hair restraint, 2) Wear clean clothing daily. 4) Remove aprons when leaving food prep areas. 5) Remove jewelry from hands and arms prior to preparing food and working in food prep areas.

    What personal behaviors can contaminate food?

    1) Wiping or touching the nose. 2) Rubbing an ear 3) Scratching the scalp 4) Touching a pimple or an infected wound 4) Running fingers through the hair.

    What is the proper procedure for handling employee wounds on hands or arms?

    Bandages must be worn over wounds on hands and arms. The bandages must keep the wound from leaking. A single-use glove or finger cot must be worn over bandages on hands or fingers.

    What procedures must foodhandlers follow when using gloves?

    1) Use single use gloves, never washed or reused. 2) Make sure fit properly 3) Never use gloves in place of handwashing. 4) Wash hands before donning gloves and when changing. 5) Change gloves when soiled, before changing tasks, every 4 hours and after handling raw meat before handling RTE food.

    What employee health problems pose a possible threat to food safety?

    1) Sore throat w/ fever; 2) Vomiting, diarrhea or jaundice; 3) Foodborne illness by one of these pathogens: Salmonella Typhi, Shigella spp, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Hep A, or Norovirus

    If an employee has a health problem that poses a possible threat to food safety, what are the appropriate actions to be taken?

    Sore throat w/ fever, restrict from working around or with foodand require medical release to return.

    For vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice or one of the following: Salmonella Typhi, Shigella spp, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Hep A, or Norovirus - Exclude from operation and require medical release to return.

    What must foodhandlers do after touching their hair, face or body?

    Wash their hands.

    What should foodhandlers do after prepping food and before usingthe restroom?

    Take off their aprons.

    Which piece of jewelry can be worn by a foodhandler?

    Plain band ring.

    When should hand antiseptics be used?

    After washing hands.

    Foodhandlers should keep their fingernails...

    short and unpolished.

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