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  • Symptoms of Food borne illness

    cramping in the abdominal area, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration.

    2 foodborne illness

    1. infection
    2. contamination

    foodborne infection

    produced by the ingestion of living, harmful organisms present in food. Such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infection have a delayed onset

    2 bacteria most associated with foodborne infection

    salmonella and E. coli

    foodborne intoxication

    an illness produced by ingestion of bacterial toxins or excrement that are present in food before it is consumed. Intoxication have a rapid onset

    2 bacteria associated with foodborne intoxication

    staphylococcus aureus and clostridium botulinum.

    3 main areas of food safety and sanitation

    1. time and temperature
    2. heat and cold
    3. the washing of hands and ware-washing (i.e., dishware, glassware, pots and pans

    4 high risk population

    1. pregnant/ nursing(lactating) women
    2. infants and children
    3. elderly
    4. impaired immune systems

    Sources of Contamination

    foodborne outbreak

    foodborne outbreak

    an incident or event where two or more people suffer a similar illness or sickness from eating a common food

    food becomes contaminated for the following reasons

    food handlers, food contact surfaces, packaging materials, soil, water, air, ingredients, and pests

    food contact surfaces should be cleaned regularly. At least how many hours?

    every 4 hours

    Non food contact surfaces should always be kept free of.....

    dirt, dust,and other particles.

    all packaging material (such as bags of flour) should be how many inches from the ground?

    At least 6 inches

    Food contaminants can be grouped into what 4 catergories

    1. biological 2. physical 3. chemical 4. cross contamination

    biological

    anything that pertains to life and or living things

    physical contaminants

    are objects that can be seen with the human eye such as nails, hair, and bandages

    chemical contamination

    can occur if an employee prepares acidic food using a copper pot

    cross contamination

    is the transfer of pathogens or disease causing micro organisms from one food to another.

    What are the 4 biological hazards

    1. bacteria 2. viruses 3. parasites 4. fungi

    bacterial foodborne illnesses account for more than how many percentage of all foodborne related illness

    90%

    what is the danger zone

    41 degrees F- 135 degrees F

    The maximum accumulated time that food can remain in the danger zone is how many hours

    4

    bacteria doubles every how many minutes

    20

    when bacteria are multiplying, it consumes the nutrients in foods, and then produces waste products or metabolic by products called. They may look and feel like slime, such as the one formed on old fish or meat

    Toxins

    Spores

    bacteria have the ability to change into forms that are very resistant to heat and dry conditions. They are characterized by the formation of a thick "shell"

    Most common types of bacteria

    E. Coli., salmonella, clostridium botulinum,

    E. Coli.

    Found in human intestines and other warm-blooded animals. It can contaminate food and water. some type can cause serious diseases such as the on termed O157:H7. ground beef needs to be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 155 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 15 seconds. commonly found in ground beef, raw fruits and vegetables, unpasteurized juices such as apple cider, and even uncommon source like animals in a petting zoo. 90 percent of E. Coli outbreaks are connected to under cooked ground beef.

    Salmonella

    found especially in poultry and eggs including their shells, in human intestines, and in domestic and wild animals. salmonella can also be found in pets, roaches, and rodents. they can also be found in unpasteurized milk and dairy products. salmonella can be killed in poultry by cookingto an internal temperature of 165 degrees for 15 seconds.

    Clostridium Botulinum

    can form spores and grow without oxygen, making it a type of anaerobic bacteria. It can affect the central nervous system. The toxin produced by the botulinum bacteria can produce sever paralysis and even death. Some additional symptoms of botulism are: dizziness, headache, and dryness in the nose and throat because of respiratory failure. It is found in the soil, lakes, human intestines, fish, swollen cans, vacuum packed foods, and smoked meats. It is the most deadly foodborne bacteria.

    MAP

    Modified atmosphere packaging. a process whereby foods are placed in containers and air is removed from the package. foods undergo this process because it extends the shelf life and helps preserve quality. they have to be kept frozen or at 41 degrees or less in the refrigerator. discard any vacuum packed foods that have signs of "bulging."

    Listeria

    found anywhere especially in lunch and deli meats. they are naturally found in soil and water and also found in animal feed and in the intestines of humans and animals. listeria can be thought of as "L and L", or listeria and luncheon meat.they are naturally found in soil and water and also found in animal feed and in the intestines of humans and animals. listeria can still grow well at temperatures below 41 degrees Fahrenheit.

    Shigella

    found in the human intestines. Most food borne illnesses caused by this microorganism are the result of not washing hands after using the bathroom and then touching ready to eat foods.Some symptoms include: fever, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps. It has most commonly been found in ready to eat foods such as: beans, pudding, raw oysters, deli meats, and raw produce such as spinach and strawberries.

    Staphylococcus Aureus

    most common cause of foodborne illness. It is found on the skin, nose, and mouth of 50 to 70 percent of all people. the bacteria can also be found on skin irritations such as boils, pimples, throat infections, and infected cuts and burns. once on food, they multiply and produce toxins. Heat can not kill toxins produced by this bacteria. It causes foodborne intoxication

    Bacillus cereus

    found in soil where vegetables and grains are grown. it forms spores and can be found on cooked rice that has been improperly cooled or held at improper temperatures. common symptoms are: nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The illness can last anywhere from half a day to 24 hours.

    vibrio

    found in raw, under processed, improperly handled, and contaminated fish and shellfish. because this bacteria requires salt to grow, it is not found in still, clear waters or raw meat or poultry. exposure to the vibrio bacteria occurs mainly by eating raw shellfish that is not cooked thoroughly, or by betting contaminated seawater directly on an open wound, cut, burn, or sore. Some symptoms are: chills and fevers, vomiting, and a skin infection that looks reddish and is warm to the touch.

    conditions for bacteria growth

    bacteria need the following conditions in order to multiply faster:
    FATTOM
    1. food- food that is high in protein such as milk, meat, fish,eggs
    2. acid- adequate pH (4.6-7.5) they do not like very acidic foods
    3. temperature- 41 degrees Fahrenheit to 135 degrees Fahrenheit
    4. time- time to reproduce (at least 4 hours)
    5. oxygen- aerobic (requires oxygen), anaerobic (does not require oxygen)
    6. moisture- foods with plenty of water

    FATTOM

    1. food- food that is high in protein such as milk, meat, fish,eggs
    2. acid- adequate pH (4.6-7.5) they do not like very acidic foods
    3. temperature- 41 degrees Fahrenheit to 135 degrees Fahrenheit
    4. time- time to reproduce (at least 4 hours)
    5. oxygen- aerobic (requires oxygen), anaerobic (does not require oxygen)
    6. moisture- foods with plenty of water

    potentially hazardous foods (PHF)

    some foods have a greater chance of foodborne contamination because of 3 main characteristics: they are high in protein, low in acidity, and have high moisture content. PAM, protein, acidity, and moisture.

    the area of concern in the ph scale is

    4.6-7.5

    Viruses

    viruses are microorganisms that will cause illnesses, but do not reproduce in food. They only use food as a means of transportation. they are smaller than bacteria, and can only reproduce in living cells human beings, plants, or anything that is alive.

    Hepatitis A

    this virus typically affects the liver.the leading cause of hep A are poor personal hygiene and improper washing of hands. symptoms include a lack of an appetite, abdominal pain or cramping, frequent diarrhea, and a yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes. The symptoms can appear in 14 days and last as long as 6 weeks.

    norwalk/ Norovirus

    large amount of viral illnesses. it lives in the human intestinal tract. transmitted through a fecal-oral route or vomit-oral route.

    Parasites

    are organisms that live within or feed off another organism or host. they are larger than bacteria, but can be very small too.

    trichinella

    roundworm found in pork that produces trichinosis.. pigs are the main carriers of this parasite. we can kill trichinella by cooking pork to 145 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 seconds. it is transferred by way of circulatory system, heart and blood stream. system include vomiting, fever, headaches, eye swelling, aching joints, and even death. Parasites can be killed if the food is cooked well or frozen at minus 4 degrees for 7 days or minus 31 degrees for 15 hours.

    anisakis

    parasite found in fish and seafood that produces anisakiasis. symptoms are a tickling or tingling sensation in the throat causing the person to cough up the actual parasite. cook fish to 145 degrees.

    Giardia

    parasite that is found mostly in bodies of contaminated water throughout the entire world, making it one of the most common sources of waterborne illness.

    ciguatera

    is a type of seafood poisoning. the cause is not the fish, but what the fish eats.

    scombroid poisoning

    is the most common reported cause of seafood illness. it comes from histamine toxins which require anti-histamines for treatment. toxins are produced when fish like mahi mahi began to spoil from being time and temperature abused. It is mainly associated with time and temperature abuse

    chemical contamination

    is caused when substances such as cleaning compounds, acids, detergents, soaps, chemicals, and pesticides get into food. it can occur in nature

    physical contamination

    is caused when hair, glass, metal shavings, broken objects, rocks, etc gets into food. In other words, if you can see it, then it can be possible physical contamination

    mold

    can cause allergic reactions and illness of a respiratory nature in people from high risk populations groups. it can be killed by heating foods to 140 degrees for 10 minutes, but it will not destroy their toxins if they have been produced and and one may still experience illness. freezing prevents growth of molds, but has no effect on the mold spores that are already present in the food.

    yeasts

    yeasts can be killed by heating foods to 136 degrees for 15 minutes. it can be controlled by proper cleaning and sanitizing

    prepared foods such as potato salad, soups, pasta salads, etc. can be stored in the refrigerator at 41 degrees or below for how many maximum days?

    7 days

    Prepared foods such as potato salad, soups, pasta salads, etc. can be stored in the refrigerator at what temperature and for how many days?

    at 41 degrees and for a maximum of 7 days.

    thermometers

    never use glass or mercury filled thermometers. they must be 5 inches in length and be numerical and accurate within plus or minus 2 degrees. they must measure between 0 and 220 degrees

    what is the TDZ

    temperature danger zone. It is between 41 and 135 degrees Fahrenheit.

    what is the 2 stage cooling process

    the first stage is to cool the food from 135 degrees to 70 degrees within 2 hours. the second stage is to cool the food from 70 to 41 degrees with an additional 4 hours. you are allowed a maximum of 6 hours but the full 6 hours is not needed each time to cool foods.

    4 methods to thawing food

    crow. cooking process, refrigeration, oven (microwave), and water (running).

    3SI

    smaller portions, shallow pans, stir food, and ice bath, ice want, and ice directly.

    2 main reasons why we cook food

    1. to make food appetizing by changing its appearance, texture, and aroma. 2. more importantly, to heat foods and destroy harmful microorganisms that may cause illness

    how are incoming shipments of foods be inspected

    for spoilage and other signs of contamination

    how are packaged foods be checked

    for any defects such as leaks, bulges, dents, broken seals, rust, or missing labels. reject packages that are damaged, patched, or taped shut

    what areas must be checked for receiving

    weight, appearance, quality, quantity, expiration date, and temperature.

    how to check for meats

    look for a bright red color, firm flesh, good smell, and a circular stamp on the box (USDA inspection). check temperature to verify it is below 41 degrees.

    how to check for poultry

    look for a fresh smell and temperature at 41 degrees or less. should be placed on crush ice.

    how to check for seafood

    fish should be delivered and stored in crushed ice. fresh fish has bright skin, gills that are moist and red, and scales firmly attached. eyes must be clear and bulging. flesh must be firm and elastic.

    how to check for shellfish

    fresh shellfish must be alive when delivered, and should not have a strong odor. shell stock id tags must be saved for 90 days. it must be received at 45 degrees or below. do not eat shellfish during red tide.

    how to check eggs

    they have to be received at 45 degrees or less, however receiving the eggs at a lower temperature is recommended. it must be pasteurized and required for recipes that need none or little cooking

    frozen foods

    keep all foods between 0-and minus 10 degrees. do not thaw and refreeze foods. only refreeze if the product is cooked

    dairy

    milks products that are served without being pasteurized should never be consumed. milk and dairy products must be pasteurized, grad a, and must be received under 41 degrees.

    dry foods

    look for punctures, tears, holes, or slashing in the packages.

    fruits and vegetables

    the best indication of quality is taste. all produce must be thoroughly washed in clean potable water before serving. juices of fruits and vegetables should be pasteurized.

    allergies

    on January 1, 2006 the federal drug administration required food labels to state if any ingredients contained protein from the eight major allergenic foods. this was a result of the food allergen labeling and consumer act of 2004 or FALCPA. the 8 major allergenic foods are: milk, eggs, fish shellfish, nuts derived from a tree, soybeans, wheat, and peanuts. one major symptom is anaphylactic shock, which can includ hives, the tightness of throat, itching, swelling, and even death

    food sanitation 101

    the safety of the consumer should be your first concern. safety includes the facility itself, the food you serve, and the employees who are under your supervision. the most common reason for foodborne illness is inadequate cooling and poor refrigeration

    preparing foods

    the employees health, personal hygiene, and hand washing is important. prevention is the best way to avoid foodborne illnesses

    FIFO

    the most important rule for storage is first in first out. this means that food has to be used in the order in which it is received

    hygiene

    the number 1 cause of food contamination is poor personal hygiene.

    HESSN

    5 illnesses that are considered highly infectious which stands for HESSN:
    hepatitis A, E. coli, salmonella, shigella, norwalk or norovirus. some symptoms of hessn illnesses are nausea,cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, and jaundice

    handwashing

    a hand washing sink shall not be used for any purpose other than for the washing of hands

    2 ways to sanitize in food establishments

    placing cleaned equipment and utensils in hot water for 30 seconds and chemical sanitizing involves placing equipment and utensil in an approved chemical sanitizing solution for a minimum of 60 seconds at cool temperatures. sanitizers are best used in temperatures above 75 but not above 120 degrees.

    approved chemical sanitizers

    1. chlorine 50 ppm. 2. iodine 12.5 3. quaternary ammonium 200 ppm

    3 compartment dish washing sink

    first compartment use hot water at 110 degrees for washing, the second compartment used for rinsing and the third sink for sanitizing with chemical with warm water

    SWRA

    scrape, wash, rinse, and air dry

    HACCP

    hazard analysis critical control point. is a system designed to be used to maximize food safety by identifying, controlling, and evaluating food safety hazards.

    step 1 hazard analysis

    improper cooling procedures, holding prepared foods too long, poor personal hygiene, and failure to rapidly reheat food before serving and improper hot holding

    step 2 critical control points

    is an operation at any point by which a preventive, or control measure can be applied that would eliminate, prevent, or minimize a hazard

    equipment and utensil

    they must have NSF, national science foundation, or UL, underwriters laboratories, label

    7 major principles involved in operating a HACCP.

    Analyze, identify, establish, monitor, take correction action,

    back siphonage

    occurs when pressure in the potable water supply drops below that of a non potable, used, or contaminated water source. An air gap is the best way to prevent back siphonage. the air gap bust be at least twice the diameter of the water supply

    freezer minimum temperature

    0

    thermometer accuracy

    plus or minus 2

    thermometer calibration

    32 degrees crushed ice and water. 212 in boiling water

    thermometer range

    0-220

    temperature danger zone

    41-135

    refrigerator storage

    41 or below

    thawing with running water

    70 or below, water must not be hot

    sanitizing with chemicals

    75 but not above 120 soak for at least 1 minute

    hand washing water

    100, 120 in california

    washing and rinsing in 3 compartment sink

    at least 110

    low temp ware washing machine

    at least 120

    2 stage cooling process

    1. 135-70 within 2 hours
    2. 70-41 within 6 hours

    hot holding foods

    135 or above

    sanitizing with hot water

    171 for 30 seconds

    high temp ware washing

    at least 180, but not higher than 195

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