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  • foodborne infection

    delayed onset- up to 72 hours; salmonella and E.Coli are examples

    foodborne intoxication

    from ingesting toxins or excrements in food, or chemical, or from food left in TDZ, RAPID onset, Staphylococcus Aureus and Clostridium Botulinum are examples

    3 areas of food safety and sanitation

    Time and Temperature (T&T), Heat and Cold, Washing of hands and ware-washing

    PIES (high risk populations)

    pregnant/nursing, infants/children, elderly, systems (immune) compromised

    4 categories of food contaminants

    biological (anything living), physical, chemical, cross contamination

    4 kinds of biological hazards

    bacteria, viruses, parasites fungi

    What accounts for 90% of foodborne illness?


    How fast does bacteria grow?

    doubles every 20 minutes if in the danger zone


    waste products that come from bacteria consuming the nutrients in foods, and then giving off waste; may feel/look like slime; can NOT be killed with heat or cold; SOME are good (yogurts, cheese, sour cream)


    resistant to heat and dry; thick 'shell". will not reproduce but can go back to growth state if conditions are right; common in home canned foods

    E. Coli

    in human intestines (and other animals), can hur food and water, some can cause death to PIES group, commin ground beef, raw fruits/veggies,

    What are 90% of E.Coli outbreaks due to?

    undercooked ground beef


    foodborne infection; often in eggs/poultry, human intestines, animals, to prevent: cook poultry to 165 for 15 secs

    1 in 10,000 eggs

    is infected with salmonella

    Clostridium Botulinum

    ANaerobic growth; can form spores; affects CNS- rare but deadly; foudn in soil, lakes, human intestines, fish, smoked meats, vacuum packed foods, swollen cans MOST DEADLY bacteria Foodborne intoxication

    leftover baked and wrapped potatoes

    must be refrigerated to avoid botulism


    Modified Atmosphere Packaging are precooked and O2 is taken out


    lunchmeat, soil water, animal feed, intestines Grows well even under 41 degrees Up to 70% of refrigerators have listeria MUST keep all foods covered
    Causes abortion in pregnant women


    in human intestines; may produce dysentery; usually passed from not washing hands after bathroom use; passed from human to human; in ready to eat foods such as beans, pudding, raw oysters, deli meat, raw spinach and strawberries

    Staphylococcus Aureus

    most common foodborne illness; on skin in noses of 50- 70% of all people; pass through sneeze cough, scratching facial hair; heat CANNOT kill toxins unusual because it grows in foods that do not have much water Also likes to grown in salads, cheeses, raw dried or processed foods, eggs Foodborne INTOXICATION improper cleaning and sanitizing of food prep utensils and eqpt also causes this

    Bacillus Cereus

    in soil where vegies and grains grow; forms spores; found in rice, cooked meat and veggies, custards, soups, raw vegetable sprouts (like alfalfa sprouts)


    in raw underprocessed of poorly handled fish and shellfish requires SALT to grow

    Do not serve raw oysters and clams to people with

    liver disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, kidney disease, stomach problems

    Conditions for Bacterial Growth

    FATTOM food high in protein, acid of 4.6- 7.5, temp 41- 135, time of at least 4 hours, Oxygen (or not), Moisture (Ax .85 or more)

    Potentially Hazards Foods (PHF)

    PAM Protein, Acidity, Moisture) beef poultry tuna cut cantaloupes honeydew watermelons


    < 7- acid, >7= alkaline, 7= neutral
    low acid foods: meats, seafood poultry, produce
    alkaline foods: food rick in acid such as pickles, citric juice, mayo, tomatoes, jams, fruit butters

    What WON'T kill bacteria?

    freezing, refrigerating, drying

    What are viruses?

    microorganisms that cause illness but do not reproduce on food; use food for transport; 100 times smaller than bacteria, spread through feces, urine, or respiratory tract; in kitchen is spread through dirty dishes and water

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)

    affects liver; poor hygiene is cause, jaundice; can appear in 14 days and las as long as 6 wks


    fecal-oral or vomit-oral transmission CHECK recent medical records of food handlers to make sure they haven't had this

    When do food service workers have to go home? If they have

    Hepatitis A virus, E.Coli, Salmonella, Shigella, or Norovirus. Need doctor's okay to return. Report to Health Dept.


    need host; can move human to human to animal If in worm state, will be visible


    roundworm in pork, mice, fats, horses, wild animals
    burrows in muscles
    Kill by cooking pork to 145 for 15 sec OR if freozen at -4 for 7 days or -31 for 15 hours


    in fish rare in USA; tickling in throat that makes person throw up worm; burrows in digestive tract Cook fish to 145 to kill. NO RAW FISH FOR PREGNANTS.


    parasite in water- drink only treated water


    seafood poisoning; from what the fish ate blurry vision, numbness around mouth, even paralysis

    Scombroid Poisoning

    need anti-histamine to treat swelling/rash around neck, etc Mahi-mahi, anchovies, skipjack tuna, herring, sardines with time and temperature abuse

    Toxic Metals- can cause Toxic Metal Poisoning

    copper brass tin galvanized metal pewter: don't use these with acidic foods- lemonade, sauerkraut, drewwing, vinegar

    Physical contamination

    you can see the offender

    Cross Contamination

    microorganisms cross from one place to another

    cutting boards- how to prevent cross contamination

    wash, rinse, sanitize, air dry- in that order

    Refrigerator storage

    Do not overload- do not put carrots bananas onions apples pears citrus fruits and potatoes in

    How to store foods on refrigerator shelves

    Bottom shelf: raw foods that need 165 like poultry
    Next shelf up: foods that need 155 like ground meat
    Next shelf up: pork and single cuts of non poultry meat-
    things that have to cook to 145
    top shelves- ready to eat food always above raw food
    EGGS go below cooked foods


    can be good but for allergic person they are very BAD;
    grows well below 41, if food LOOKS moldy it has already been deeply penetrated by fungus and sports can then build-up in other foods or on surfaces in frig

    Can you use moldy foods?

    Cut one inch cut on all sides of salami, cured ham, and hard cheeses; toss other foods out

    Can you kill molds?

    Yes- heat to 140 for 10 minutes but this does not destroy toxins if they have already been produced
    Freezing prevents growth but does nothing for mold spores that are already in the food


    Healthy and do not produce foodborne illness but can wreck taste in sauerkraut, fruit juice, syrups, honey, jellies

    How to kill yeast

    Heath to 136 for 15 minutes, and control with good sanitation

    Shelf life of prepared potato salad, soups, pasta salads

    7 days at 41 or below; cover and label with date food was prepared; DISCARD expired food


    at least 5 inches in length and accurate to +/= 2 degrees

    Calibrating thermometers

    212 degrees and 32 degree crushed and water for 30 sec each

    infrared thermometers

    don't use; only good for surface temps

    Temperature Danger Zone TDZ

    41 to 135- food cannot be here longer than 4 horus

    Two-Stage Cooking Process

    Stage 1: Cool from 135 to 70 in 2 hrs
    Stage 2: Cool from 70 to 41 in four hours

    Main cause of food contamination in USA:

    inadequate cooling and improper refrigeration
    NEVER put hot food in frig

    How to cool (3SI)

    Smaller portions, Shallow pans, Stir foods
    Ice bath, Ice wand, Ice directly


    must make from potable water
    must be scooped only with APPROVED scoop, and taht scoop must be kept in sanitary container

    Holding Foods

    must reheat to 165

    4 methods to defrost foods

    cook right away, keep in frig at less than 41, microwave and THEN cook immediately, or under running wtaer that is 70 degrees or less but must be competely submerged in the water

    Cooking poultry

    165 for 15 sec

    Cooking ground meat (except poultry)

    155 for 15 sec

    Cooking beef roast (medium), pork roastm ham

    145 for 3 min

    Cooking pork, beef

    145 for 15 sec

    Cooking fish, seafood

    145 for 15 sec

    Cooking eggs to serve immediately

    145 for 15 sec

    Cooking eggs for buffet lines

    155 for 15 sec

    Reheating foods

    165 for 15 seconds within 2 hours- and ONLY ONCE

    Receiving meats (beef pork lamb)

    good color, firm, USDA approved, 41 or below

    Receiving poultry

    no color or odor, firm no dark wing tips, USDA ok, 41 or below

    Receiving fsh

    bright gills, bulging eyes, 41 or below

    Receiving crabs and lobster

    ALIVE, mild ocean smell, 41 or below

    Receiving shellfish

    ALIVE, unbroken, ID tags, 45 or below

    Receiving eggs

    unbroken clean 45 or below but recommend 41

    Receiving pooled/liquid eggs

    41 or below

    Receiving UHT's

    room temp in aseptic packaging

    frozen foods

    0- -10, no ice crystals

    MAP (Modified Atmosphere Packaging) / ROP (Reduced Oxgyen Packaging)

    package in tact, 41 or below


    must be Grade A, pasteurized 41 or below

    In case of power failure

    foods above 50 must be thrown away

    Serving milk

    must be in original container

    serving ice cream

    scoop must be in dipper well with dry handle

    dry food storage

    50- 70

    What food service workers must wear

    clean apron over clothing, hair nets, short clean nails, no nail polish or fake nails, no watches, no sleeveless shirts

    5 highly infectious illlnesses

    HESSN: Hep A, E Coli, Salmonella, Shiigella, Norwalk- employee has to go home if has these


    water temp at least 100 degrees, soap on hands and scrub to elbows, wash at least 20 sec, disposable paper towels or hot air machine Use paper towel to shut off water and open handle of door. Hand sanitizer can be used IN ADDITION to hand washing.

    2 ways to sanitize

    1) heat- eqpt/utensils 171 degrees for 30 min
    2) chemical- place in sanitier for 50+ seconds at cool temps- sanitizers are best used btwn 75 and 120

    Clean contact surfaces every

    4 hours

    Master Cleaning Schedule

    walls, floors, ceilings, utensils, eqpt log

    Wiping cloths

    keep in sanitizing xolutoin and air dry

    Approve chemical sanitizers

    chlorine 50 ppm
    iodine 12.5 ppm
    quaternary ammonium(Quats) 200 ppm

    To make sanitizer:

    on gal water and one ounce bleach- use pH strips to test

    3 compartment dish-washing sink

    1: 110 degrees for washing
    2: rinse
    3: 70- 75 degrees with sanitizer

    Prepping for manual dishwashing: SWRSA

    scrape wash rinse sanitize air dry

    Machine dishwashers

    must display required temp for wash, rinse, sanitize

    prepping for dishwashing machine

    scrape and rinse only with HOT water

    temps for high-temp dishwasher

    was btwn 140 and 160; sanitize at 180- 194

    low temp dishwasher

    wash around 120 degrees, uses chemicals to sanitize

    Eqpt and Utensils

    Stamped with NSF, sanitize every 4 hours

    handling tableware

    hold glasses by bottom, don't touch top of plate, sanitize every 4 hours

    storing dishes

    glasses upside down, utensils with HANDLES UP

    Utensils at Buffet

    must be INSIDE the food they serve- ONE utensil per food

    Food Protection System HACCP

    Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Pts,

    7 Principals in HACCP System

    1) analyze hazard at each flow of food
    2) ID critical control points with action verb... cooking, cooling, etc
    3) Establish critical limits for each CCP
    4) Monitor CCP
    5) Corrective actoin, if needed
    6) Verify that HACCP is working
    7) create record-keeping system

    Water Supply

    must be hot and cold

    Lighting requirements

    need light shields that are clean
    prep area must have 50 foot candles
    dining/buffet areas must have 20 foot candles
    walk-in frig and freezer must have 10 food candle

    Frig temp

    38- 40; monitor several times per day

    Pest Management- 3 principles


    Burns and cuts

    treat with cold water only,
    wash, bandage, and glove cuts- in that order

    Fire Extinguisher types

    ABC required in commercial kitchens
    A- wood and paper fires
    B- grease and oil fires
    C- electric fires

    3 characteristics of well-trained staff

    1) knowledge of basic food safety
    2) motivation to do the righ thing at the right tiem
    3) workplace where good policies are expected

    5 benefits of training staff

    improved customer satisfaction, lower turnover, lower costs, fewer accidents, better quality

    6 tips for training staff

    1) staff retain what is relevant
    2) active participation
    3) staff learn in different ways and at different speeds
    4) praise and rewards
    5) short sessions- 30- 45 minutes
    6) recognize when someone does a good job

    thermometer range

    required: 0- 220

    temperature of handwashing water

    100, or 120 in California

    temperature for hot holding foods

    must be 135 or above

    temp for sanitizing with hot water

    171 for 30 sec


    small sheltered inlet or bay/ curved baseboards that have closed corners for easier cleaning


    diarrhea with blood and mucus in the feces

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