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Which of the following methods are used to remove pomegranate seeds?
Cut outer skin and tap out seeds or submerge fruit in bowl of cold water to pull off seeds
All of the following are true about Jerusalem artichokes
b. They are related to sunflowers
c. The later in the season they are harvested, the sweeter the taste
d. Jerusalem artichokes are a good source of iron
The results from the research study in the jerusalem artichoke presentation found that:
consumption of Jerusalem artichokes increase the count of bifidobacteria in the gut
How would one know if the quail egg is of optimum quality?
If both the egg white and the yolk are firm and high
Quail eggs are considered a super food because:
They are a significant source of antioxidants and amino acids
When storing nutritional yeast, it is important to remember
a. To store in a cool, dry place
b. To store in an airtight package
c. Nutritional value may deteriorate after a year
All of the following are good characteristics to look for in fresh broccoli raab
bright green color, firm leaves, no yellowing, thin stalks
True/False: To peel a plantain, you hold onto the stem and peel down the sides, like you would a banana.
seeds within a pod (beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, soybeans) inner coat is red or yellow cotyledon
how to prepare legumes-
what are the exceptions?
sort and rinse
soak (except lentils and split peas)
why do legumes cause flatulence? how to prevent?
-indigestible carbs fermented by colonic bacteria cause gas
-soak several times/discard water, rinse well with fresh water, use beano
what inhibits softening of beans? how to fix it?
how do hard and soft water affect beans and how to fix it?
-acids and calcium so add them after they are tender
-hard water increases cooking time so add 1/8 tsp baking soda when soaking
-soft water may soften beans too much
how does humidity affect storage of legumes? how much do legumes increase in volume when cooked?
-high humidity decreases storage time and flavor
-2-3x (1lb yields 4-7 cups)
tempeh vs miso-
tempeh: cooked soybeans inoculated with mold spores to give meaty texture and smoky, nutty flavor
miso: fermented soybean paste (uses fungus) used for sauces, soups, spreads and pickling and is found in refrigerated section
what are the benefits of plant proteins?
-rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
-no cholesterol and little fat
-low cost and nutrient dense
what are some disadvantages of plant proteins?
-bulkiness (fill up too quickly)
-may not meet certain vitamin needs (Ca, B12, D, Fe, Zn)
-Fiber, phytates and oxalates can sequester nutrients
-abdominal bloating and gas
what are the functions of sugar in a recipe?
-volume and texture
what are the functions of fat in a recipe?
what are the functions of eggs in a recipe?
when should you modify a recipe?
how frequent is intake?
client's doesn't have much of a preference for something
what composes milk?
whey= liquid portion (20% of protein)
casein= protein (80%)
emulsifers, foaming and geling agents
how does pasteurization work? what is tested to see if it was successful?
-it kills the enzymes that cause rancidity by converty lactose to lactic acid
-alkaline phosphatase is checked
ultra pasteurization vs UHT pasteurization-
kills the bacteria so there is a longer shelf life vs. very high temp, aseptically sealed so no refrigeration necessary for up to 3 months
what is milk homogenization for?
prevents separation of water and fat by decreasing fat globule size to increase viscosity and creaminess
how does homogenization alter milk?
changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor
what affects the flavor of milk?
-lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed
what is curdling of milk? what causes it?
-coagulation or precipitation of milk proteins
-heat, acid, polyphenolic compounds, salts and enzymes
what does heat do to milk?
causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it
what causes skin formation on milk? how is it avoided?
-evaporation, increased casein, fat, mineral salt concentration
-lid, continiual stirring, floating butter, whip cream
how do you prevent coagulation of milk by acid?
-thicken milk or acid with starch before combining
-add acid to milk (rather than milk to acid)
-avoid high temps once mixed
-casein's isoelectric point is 4.6
what enzymes cause milk to curdle?
pepsin, proteases from plants, frui, rennins from calf stomach (rennets used to make cheese/ice cream)
what is the difference between rennin coagulated curdles of milk and acid coagulated curdles?
rennin: rich in calcium, tough and rubbery
acid: less elastic, more fragile, less calcium (lost in whey)
how to avoid curdling from salts and polyphenolic comppounds-
-polyphenolic compounds: thicken milk or add starch before adding other ingredients
-salt: add to milk and avoid high temps after combining
how does whipping cause milk products to expand?
whipping stretches the proteins into thin layers that traps bubbles of fat and liquid
what temperature does milk form a stable dairy foam? what are the other factors of stability
more fat = more stable
older (at least 1 day old) = more stable
sugar added toward end (esp powdered) = more stable
whipped evaporated milk vs whipped NFDM-
evap: high conc. of milk solids causes 3x increase, flavor, texture and stability less acceptable, chill, add sugar, lower cost
NFDM: unstable, less cost, add lemon juice or sugar to increase stability, less calories
why is sweetened condensed milk dark? what is evaporated milk? what is sweetened condensed milk?
-maillard reaction from added sugar and proteins
-evap: 60% of water removed
-condensed: 50% water removed and 15% sugar added
what is a bein marie? how is it used for custard and how do you know when custard is done?
-it is a water bath that should be filled to custard line
-when a knife stuck in the middle comes out clean
when should acid be added to eggs when whipping? when should sugar be added?
at the foamy stage
soft peak stage
what is the based way to make hard boiled eggs? what happens if cooked too long?
-simmer 15-20 minutes
-green ring forms from iron in yolk and sulfur from whites
egg white foams are best cooked in what stage?
soft peak stage because it is still elastic enough to expand
what does an egg white foam look like?
creates an air bubble and protein denatures and wraps around the air bubble and other additives coat the protein
how does cooling affect whipping dairy? what happens due to warming?
-it increases viscosity, firmness and clumping
-it causes fat globules to disperse
how does sugar affect whipping? how does acid affect whipping?
-increases stability but if added too early peaks won't form
-denatures proteins so it increases stability so it should be added in foamy stage
why is fat free cheese tougher when melted?
increased proteins and decreased fats
processed cheese has emulsifying salts that allow it to melt better and won't separate as easily
what are eggs used for in food prep?
what is the cuticle or bloom of an egg? what is the chalaza?
-waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
-on each end of the yolk to hold it in place
what is another name for egg white? what are the 4 layers? what happens to egg white as it ages?
-albumin (60% of the egg's weight)
-inner thick, inner thin, outer thick, outer thin
-loses Co2 and increases pH
how can you minimize curdling of eggs upon heating?
-low temp oven
-short heating time
how does sugar affect egg prep? salt?
-it increases coagulation temp so more heat is requires and it becomes more tender
-lowers coagulation temp so it should be added before heating
how does acid affect egg prep? starch?
-lowers coagulation temp and can cause curdling and heating too long can cause thinning
-thicken before adding egg because they have different gelatinization temps and could curdle egg (or temper it)
what are the advantages/disadvantages of hot water start for hard boiling eggs? what are the advantages/disadvantages of cold start?
-peels easier, shorter cooking and better temp control but has tendency to crack
-less likely to crack but can cause green ring, can be rubbery and cooks longer
how does do acid and salt affect egg foams?
acid creates bubbles faster and salt addes flavor but can dry it out
what type of utensil should be used for egg foams?
metal NEVER plastic because it holds onto fat
-don't use blender or food processor
how does sugar affect egg foams?
-increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form
how does fat affect foams? how does temp of eggs affect foams? how does age affect foams?
-interferes with coagulation so even a spot of yolk could interfere
-eggs beat faster at room temp (unlike cream)
-older whip easier and create more volume but fresh are more stable
what happens when water is added to a foam?
creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable
what is beading and how does it occur? what causes wheeping?
-tiny syrup droplets that form from overcooking so it is avoided with higher heat
-undercooking, underbeating, or hot filling
fresh vs old eggs-
fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white
why does overmixing causes tunnels?
it causes increased gluten formation and then chemical leaveners have difficulty rising
which type of flour had the largest gluten ball? smallest? why?
bread because it has the most protein and cake because it has the least amount of protein
what is the primary purpose of flour? what is the secondary purpose of flour?
-strength, structure, flavor and crumb
-amylase causes sweetness, color and texture
what are the gluten forming proteins?
glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading
glutenin adds _______ and gliadin adds ____. what is the only type of flour with gluten?
the north has _____ protein content flour than the south because______.
southern flour is in more moderate climates so there is less gluten
what happens when rye,corn, barley, oat, whole wheat etc. replace white wheat flours?
yeast breads might not leaven properly due to lack of gluten
what 4 things can be added to modify flour?
-AA or KBr (carcinogen): to increase strength/elasticity
-salt: increases gluten strength and flavor
-shortening: limits gluten
-sugar: feeds yeast, limits gluten and postpones coagulation
how do yeast and gluten interact?
gluten traps gas bubbles from yeast increasing volme and when it is baked yeast dies leaving structure behind (overkneading kills yeast)
how is air as a leavener influenced?
-manipulation, batter viscosity, temp, foams, fat and bench time (need short bench time)
what products form from steam leavening?
baked products like popovers, pastries, cream puffs, pour batters and popovers (all baked goods?)
what happens when not enough acid is added to baking soda?
sodium bicarb forms which has a soapy taste and yellow color
1 cup of flour can be leavened with ____ baking soda and ____ acid. ____ of baking powder can substitue.
-1/4 tsp and 1/2 cup
- 1-1 1/4 tsp
single vs double acting baking powder-
-immediately releases CO2 when liquid is added
-double acting has 2 acid salts one that reacts with cold water and one with hot water
why do some recipes call for baking soda and baking powder?
baking powder is reliable but baking soda can neutralize extra acidity (which could cause cake to fall)
what are the enzymes at work when yeast is added to flours?
-invertase and maltase from yeast break starches into simple sugars
-alpha amylase in FLOUR breaks down simple sugars
how do salt, sugar and temperature affect yeast?
-salt disciplines yeast so the CO2 isn't released before it is mixed ito bread
-sugar increases actvity but can reduce gas production
-sudden temperature change causes the dough to fall
how do salt and fats affect DOUGH?
salt: controls bacteria, tightens gluten
fat: tenderized, increases volume and increases shelf life
how do whole eggs. whites and yolks affect dough?
whole: leavens, binds, strengthens and colors
whites: leavens, binds and dries
yolk: colors, binds, emulsifies, decreases drying
what is compressed yeast? what is dry yeast? what is instant?
-has cornstarch and water so it needs to be refrigerated, can use cold or warm water to rehydrate
-most common, rehydrated with lukewarm water
-small granules, no water needed, need higher water temps
what is the straight dough method for mixing? sponge method? batter method? rapid mix?
-all into bowl and mixed at once
-yeast/water in flour fermented til spongy
-no kneading so bread has course texture
what occurs during the first rising of dough? 2nd rising? final rising?
-fermentation, dough doubles in size
-punching down to redistribute ingredients (not all recipes)
-should have rounded top, occurs in baking pan to adequately aerate, should always be covered
what happens if dough is over fermented?
-gluten stretches and weakens
what is used to prevent staling in bread? what is used to retard mold?
-fats/mono and di glycerides
-sodium or calcium propionate
foam cake vs shortened cake-
foam: higher ration of eggs to flour and doesn't always have fat
shortened: always contains fat
sponge cake vs chiffon cake-
both are foam cakes but sponge cake only has egg yolks and chiffon has yolks and an oil
pound cakes have less sugar than high ratio cakes so high ratio cakes require-
shortening and added emulsifiers
best ratio of baking powder____, baking soda ____ and salt per cup of flour for cakes.
bp: 1 tsp
bs: 1/4 tsp
salt: 1/2 tsp for flavor
what is the baseline moisture for cakes? how is it increased? which is better for moisture oil or butter?
-1 egg + 3 yolks (whites dry out)
-oil coats flour proteins so it is better
why are butter and shortening better than oils for cakes?
they give larger volume, smaller crumb and give more flavor
(never use margarine)
to get a light and airy cake use the _________ method.
creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients
to get a velvety, melt in mouth cake texture use the ______ method.
2 stage method which mixes dry ingredients in with all fat before eggs and other liquids are added (can be heavier and fragile)
other names for creaming cake method-
other names for 2 step sake method-
-sugar-shortening, sugar batter, conventional method
-blending, pastry blend, flour batter
what are the possible pitfalls of the creaming cake method?
-temp of ingredients
-need to cream 100%
-over adding liquid causes too much gluten and touch texture
the protein in milks is a ______ protein.
-2 servings per day provide half a woman's daily protein intake and 1/3 of a man's`
how are whey isolates used in the food industry?
-fillers, emulsifiers, protein bars, foaming agents, gelling agents
milk allergy vs milk intolerance-
intolerance: lack of lactase enzyme so it can't be digested
allergy: immune response to milk that most kids grow out of
homogenized milk _______ more easily so it makes puddings, white sauces etc. more ______.
homogenization makes the milk more susceptible to _______.
rancidity due to oxygen molecules added to the double bonds
-soft, white, mild (cottage, cream, ricotta etc)
-muenster, gouda, gorgonzola
-parmesan and romano
direct vs indirect acid coagulation of cheese:
direct: adding acid to milk
indirect: adding bacteria that ferment lactose to lactic acid
how can the curd be treated to remove whey during cheese making?
-cutting, heating, salting, knitting (melted), pressing
how are eggs graded via candling?
younger eggs are seen as a shadow because the chalaza are intact but older eggs are up agianst the shell and have a larger air cell
what does it mean if a pan is primed or seasoned?
the pores of the pan are sealed with a layer of heated on oil
why is vinegar added to water when hard boiling eggs?
to break hard shell and to harden egg white if it cracks
why do eggs sometimes crack while boiling?
fast heating causes pressure build up and can be avoided by letting them warm to room temp first
an egg has about ____ calories, ____ g of fat, ____ g of protein, and ____ mg of cholesterol.
5 g fat
5 g protein
-division of milled flour based on particle size
-contains finest streams from milling
-flour containing all different streams
too much salt in dough causes-
not enough salt causes-
firm , low volume dough
sticky, low volume , bland
what are hydrocolloid food additives?
molecules that have extra hydroxyl groups so they are hydrophilic and provide stability for frozen/thawed foods
why does dough need to be punched down after the first rising?
to redistiribute sugars, yeasts etc and even out temperature
why is the oven initially hotter for the first 30 minutes?
to contribute to the oven spring (initial rising of the bread)
why are bagels boiled before baking?
to create a moist surface that doesn't brown easily and is less crunchy and causes starch to gelatinize causing a shiny, smooth crust
when baking at high altitude liquid should be _______ and temperature should be _______.