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  • What family does celeriac belong to?

    parsley

    what do you NOT when when choosing celeriac?

    Rough texture

    Celeriac is most commonly used as a low-calorie substitute for which other vegetable?

    potatoes

    Which of the following methods are used to remove pomegranate seeds?

    Cut outer skin and tap out seeds or submerge fruit in bowl of cold water to pull off seeds

    Where did Pomegranates originate from?

    Iran and India

    Pomegranates are a rich source of what?

    Antioxidants

    Rutabagas belong to what family?

    Cruciferous family

    Rutabagas can be purchased in when?

    all year round

    True/False: Rutabagas are poisonous if eaten raw.

    false

    What nutrients is broccoflower known for being a good source of?

    vitamin C and Potassium

    Broccoflower is also known as?

    Romanesco Broccoli
    Green cauliflower

    Broccoflower is considered a __________ vegetable.

    cool season vegetable

    The main form of carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichokes is:

    inulin

    All of the following are true about Jerusalem artichokes

    b. They are related to sunflowers
    c. The later in the season they are harvested, the sweeter the taste
    d. Jerusalem artichokes are a good source of iron

    The results from the research study in the jerusalem artichoke presentation found that:

    consumption of Jerusalem artichokes increase the count of bifidobacteria in the gut

    How would one know if the quail egg is of optimum quality?

    If both the egg white and the yolk are firm and high

    Quail eggs are considered a super food because:

    They are a significant source of antioxidants and amino acids

    Quails are a part of this family:

    Phasianidae

    When storing nutritional yeast, it is important to remember

    a. To store in a cool, dry place
    b. To store in an airtight package
    c. Nutritional value may deteriorate after a year

    Nutritional yeast is a good source of

    Protein and B Vitamins

    Raab was brought to the US by

    Italian immigrants

    All of the following are good characteristics to look for in fresh broccoli raab

    bright green color, firm leaves, no yellowing, thin stalks

    Brocolli Raab is a good source of

    Vitamin A

    True/False: To peel a plantain, you hold onto the stem and peel down the sides, like you would a banana.

    False

    Plaintains are a good source of

    vitamins A and D

    legumes are-

    seeds within a pod (beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, soybeans) inner coat is red or yellow cotyledon

    how to prepare legumes-
    what are the exceptions?

    sort and rinse
    soak (except lentils and split peas)

    short soak-
    long soak-

    -boil 2 minutes then soak for an hour
    -overnight in COLD water

    why do legumes cause flatulence? how to prevent?

    -indigestible carbs fermented by colonic bacteria cause gas
    -soak several times/discard water, rinse well with fresh water, use beano

    what inhibits softening of beans? how to fix it?
    how do hard and soft water affect beans and how to fix it?

    -acids and calcium so add them after they are tender
    -hard water increases cooking time so add 1/8 tsp baking soda when soaking
    -soft water may soften beans too much

    how does humidity affect storage of legumes? how much do legumes increase in volume when cooked?

    -high humidity decreases storage time and flavor
    -2-3x (1lb yields 4-7 cups)

    how many grams of soy are required to get the heart health benefits?

    25 g

    tempeh vs miso-

    tempeh: cooked soybeans inoculated with mold spores to give meaty texture and smoky, nutty flavor
    miso: fermented soybean paste (uses fungus) used for sauces, soups, spreads and pickling and is found in refrigerated section

    what are the benefits of plant proteins?

    -rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
    -no cholesterol and little fat
    -complex carbs
    -phytochemicals
    -low cost and nutrient dense

    what are some disadvantages of plant proteins?

    -bulkiness (fill up too quickly)
    -may not meet certain vitamin needs (Ca, B12, D, Fe, Zn)
    -Fiber, phytates and oxalates can sequester nutrients
    -abdominal bloating and gas

    what are the functions of sugar in a recipe?

    -nonenzymatic browning
    -volume and texture
    -tenderizer
    -stabilizer
    -bulk
    -decorative
    -preservative

    what are the functions of salt in a recipe?

    flavor, regulation of yeast and inhibition of microbes

    what are the functions of fat in a recipe?

    -lubrication
    -heat transfer
    -aeration
    -emulsification
    -flavor
    -color

    what are the functions of eggs in a recipe?

    -moisten
    -stabilizing
    -flavor
    -color
    -emulsification
    -leavening

    when should you modify a recipe?

    how frequent is intake?
    client's doesn't have much of a preference for something

    what composes milk?

    whey= liquid portion (20% of protein)
    casein= protein (80%)
    mainly water
    lactose
    emulsifers, foaming and geling agents

    how does pasteurization work? what is tested to see if it was successful?

    -it kills the enzymes that cause rancidity by converty lactose to lactic acid
    -alkaline phosphatase is checked

    ultra pasteurization vs UHT pasteurization-

    kills the bacteria so there is a longer shelf life vs. very high temp, aseptically sealed so no refrigeration necessary for up to 3 months

    what is milk homogenization for?

    prevents separation of water and fat by decreasing fat globule size to increase viscosity and creaminess

    how does homogenization alter milk?

    changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor

    what affects the flavor of milk?

    -lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed

    what is curdling of milk? what causes it?

    -coagulation or precipitation of milk proteins
    -heat, acid, polyphenolic compounds, salts and enzymes

    what does heat do to milk?

    causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it

    what causes skin formation on milk? how is it avoided?

    -evaporation, increased casein, fat, mineral salt concentration
    -lid, continiual stirring, floating butter, whip cream

    how do you prevent coagulation of milk by acid?

    -thicken milk or acid with starch before combining
    -add acid to milk (rather than milk to acid)
    -avoid high temps once mixed
    -casein's isoelectric point is 4.6

    what enzymes cause milk to curdle?

    pepsin, proteases from plants, frui, rennins from calf stomach (rennets used to make cheese/ice cream)

    what is the difference between rennin coagulated curdles of milk and acid coagulated curdles?

    rennin: rich in calcium, tough and rubbery
    acid: less elastic, more fragile, less calcium (lost in whey)

    how to avoid curdling from salts and polyphenolic comppounds-

    -polyphenolic compounds: thicken milk or add starch before adding other ingredients
    -salt: add to milk and avoid high temps after combining

    creams are ____-_____% fat-

    18-36

    how does whipping cause milk products to expand?

    whipping stretches the proteins into thin layers that traps bubbles of fat and liquid

    what temperature does milk form a stable dairy foam? what are the other factors of stability

    45°F
    more fat = more stable
    older (at least 1 day old) = more stable
    sugar added toward end (esp powdered) = more stable

    what months is rhubarb most plentiful?

    april through june

    what component of rhubarb is poisonous?

    anthraquinones

    whipped evaporated milk vs whipped NFDM-

    evap: high conc. of milk solids causes 3x increase, flavor, texture and stability less acceptable, chill, add sugar, lower cost
    NFDM: unstable, less cost, add lemon juice or sugar to increase stability, less calories

    why is sweetened condensed milk dark? what is evaporated milk? what is sweetened condensed milk?

    -maillard reaction from added sugar and proteins
    -evap: 60% of water removed
    -condensed: 50% water removed and 15% sugar added

    what is a bein marie? how is it used for custard and how do you know when custard is done?

    -it is a water bath that should be filled to custard line
    -when a knife stuck in the middle comes out clean

    when should acid be added to eggs when whipping? when should sugar be added?

    at the foamy stage
    soft peak stage

    how does water affect egg whites?

    increase volume and puffiness but decreases stability

    what is the based way to make hard boiled eggs? what happens if cooked too long?

    -simmer 15-20 minutes
    -green ring forms from iron in yolk and sulfur from whites

    egg white foams are best cooked in what stage?

    soft peak stage because it is still elastic enough to expand

    what does an egg white foam look like?

    creates an air bubble and protein denatures and wraps around the air bubble and other additives coat the protein

    how does cooling affect whipping dairy? what happens due to warming?

    -it increases viscosity, firmness and clumping
    -it causes fat globules to disperse

    evaporated whole milk increases ___x and whipping cream increases ___x.

    3x
    2x

    how does sugar affect whipping? how does acid affect whipping?

    -increases stability but if added too early peaks won't form
    -denatures proteins so it increases stability so it should be added in foamy stage

    why is fat free cheese tougher when melted?

    increased proteins and decreased fats
    processed cheese has emulsifying salts that allow it to melt better and won't separate as easily

    best way to melt cheese-

    at a low temp for a short period of time

    what part of the globe artichoke is not eaten?

    the choke

    what are eggs used for in food prep?

    -emulsification
    -thickening
    -leavening
    -binding
    -interfering
    -color/flavor
    -clarification

    how should egg white foams be mixed into a better?

    folded

    what is the cuticle or bloom of an egg? what is the chalaza?

    -waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
    -on each end of the yolk to hold it in place

    what is another name for egg white? what are the 4 layers? what happens to egg white as it ages?

    -albumin (60% of the egg's weight)
    -inner thick, inner thin, outer thick, outer thin
    -loses Co2 and increases pH

    yolk is made of-

    water, protein and fat

    germ spot-
    vitelline layer-

    -white spot on surface of yolk
    -layer around the yolk

    what happens to the air cell of an egg as it ages?

    loses moisture and CO2 so it increases in size

    what can replace eggs in a recipe for vegans?

    flax seeds in water, tofu or fruit puree

    egg whites cook at a _______ temp than egg yolks.

    lower

    how can you minimize curdling of eggs upon heating?

    -bein marie
    -low temp oven
    -short heating time
    -tempering

    what months is the fiddlehead fern available?

    June

    what has research shown about fiddlehead ferns?

    they are not carcinogenic

    how are fiddlehead ferns commonly prepared?

    sautéing them

    how does sugar affect egg prep? salt?

    -it increases coagulation temp so more heat is requires and it becomes more tender
    -lowers coagulation temp so it should be added before heating

    how does acid affect egg prep? starch?

    -lowers coagulation temp and can cause curdling and heating too long can cause thinning
    -thicken before adding egg because they have different gelatinization temps and could curdle egg (or temper it)

    what are the advantages/disadvantages of hot water start for hard boiling eggs? what are the advantages/disadvantages of cold start?

    -peels easier, shorter cooking and better temp control but has tendency to crack
    -less likely to crack but can cause green ring, can be rubbery and cooks longer

    how does do acid and salt affect egg foams?

    acid creates bubbles faster and salt addes flavor but can dry it out

    what type of utensil should be used for egg foams?

    metal NEVER plastic because it holds onto fat
    -don't use blender or food processor

    how does sugar affect egg foams?

    -increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form

    how does fat affect foams? how does temp of eggs affect foams? how does age affect foams?

    -interferes with coagulation so even a spot of yolk could interfere
    -eggs beat faster at room temp (unlike cream)
    -older whip easier and create more volume but fresh are more stable

    what happens when water is added to a foam?

    creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable

    what is beading and how does it occur? what causes wheeping?

    -tiny syrup droplets that form from overcooking so it is avoided with higher heat
    -undercooking, underbeating, or hot filling

    fresh vs old eggs-

    fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
    old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white

    what are haugh units?

    way to measure quality of an egg by cracking egg and observing yolk and white

    why does overmixing causes tunnels?

    it causes increased gluten formation and then chemical leaveners have difficulty rising

    what does baking soda need to react?

    acid

    what is baking powder?

    baking soda with acid and salt so it can react with hot and cold water

    what is gluten?

    a protein that provides strength and structure

    which type of flour had the largest gluten ball? smallest? why?

    bread because it has the most protein and cake because it has the least amount of protein

    what is the primary purpose of flour? what is the secondary purpose of flour?

    -strength, structure, flavor and crumb
    -amylase causes sweetness, color and texture

    what are the gluten forming proteins?

    glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading

    glutenin adds _______ and gliadin adds ____. what is the only type of flour with gluten?

    elasticity, softness
    wheat

    the north has _____ protein content flour than the south because______.

    higher
    southern flour is in more moderate climates so there is less gluten

    flour can differ in the same strain due to-

    soil, temp, rainfall, maturity at harvest

    what is self rising flour?

    has baking powder and salt in it

    what happens when rye,corn, barley, oat, whole wheat etc. replace white wheat flours?

    yeast breads might not leaven properly due to lack of gluten

    what 4 things can be added to modify flour?

    -AA or KBr (carcinogen): to increase strength/elasticity
    -salt: increases gluten strength and flavor
    -shortening: limits gluten
    -sugar: feeds yeast, limits gluten and postpones coagulation

    how do yeast and gluten interact?

    gluten traps gas bubbles from yeast increasing volme and when it is baked yeast dies leaving structure behind (overkneading kills yeast)

    what are the physical leavening agents? chemical?

    -air and steam
    -bio and chemical that produce CO2

    how is air as a leavener influenced?

    -manipulation, batter viscosity, temp, foams, fat and bench time (need short bench time)

    what products form from steam leavening?

    baked products like popovers, pastries, cream puffs, pour batters and popovers (all baked goods?)

    what happens when not enough acid is added to baking soda?

    sodium bicarb forms which has a soapy taste and yellow color

    1 cup of flour can be leavened with ____ baking soda and ____ acid. ____ of baking powder can substitue.

    -1/4 tsp and 1/2 cup
    - 1-1 1/4 tsp

    single vs double acting baking powder-

    -immediately releases CO2 when liquid is added
    -double acting has 2 acid salts one that reacts with cold water and one with hot water

    why do some recipes call for baking soda and baking powder?

    baking powder is reliable but baking soda can neutralize extra acidity (which could cause cake to fall)

    how to make best muffins-

    -lumpy batter
    -no overmixing

    how does yeast grow?

    -eats the carbs around it creating CO2 and ethanol
    -budding

    what are the enzymes at work when yeast is added to flours?

    -invertase and maltase from yeast break starches into simple sugars
    -alpha amylase in FLOUR breaks down simple sugars

    how do salt, sugar and temperature affect yeast?

    -salt disciplines yeast so the CO2 isn't released before it is mixed ito bread
    -sugar increases actvity but can reduce gas production
    -sudden temperature change causes the dough to fall

    how do salt and fats affect DOUGH?

    salt: controls bacteria, tightens gluten
    fat: tenderized, increases volume and increases shelf life

    how do whole eggs. whites and yolks affect dough?

    whole: leavens, binds, strengthens and colors
    whites: leavens, binds and dries
    yolk: colors, binds, emulsifies, decreases drying

    what is compressed yeast? what is dry yeast? what is instant?

    -has cornstarch and water so it needs to be refrigerated, can use cold or warm water to rehydrate
    -most common, rehydrated with lukewarm water
    -small granules, no water needed, need higher water temps

    what is optional in yeast breads?

    fat/eggs

    what is the straight dough method for mixing? sponge method? batter method? rapid mix?

    -all into bowl and mixed at once
    -yeast/water in flour fermented til spongy
    -no kneading so bread has course texture
    -machine

    what does it mean if the gluten window tears?

    it has been over kneaded or too much flour was added

    what occurs during the first rising of dough? 2nd rising? final rising?

    -fermentation, dough doubles in size
    -punching down to redistribute ingredients (not all recipes)
    -should have rounded top, occurs in baking pan to adequately aerate, should always be covered

    what happens if dough is over fermented?

    -dough collapses
    -gluten stretches and weakens
    -off smell
    -pale
    -less flavor

    why is risen dough scored?

    to ventilate and decorate

    what is oven spring? what is crumb?

    -initial expansion of dough
    - cell size and thickness of dough

    what is rope?

    sticky interior from bacteria that occurs in the summer in bread

    what is used to prevent staling in bread? what is used to retard mold?

    -fats/mono and di glycerides
    -sodium or calcium propionate

    what are the necessary ingredients for bread?

    yeast, salt, bread flour and warm water

    foam cake vs shortened cake-

    foam: higher ration of eggs to flour and doesn't always have fat
    shortened: always contains fat

    sponge cake vs chiffon cake-

    both are foam cakes but sponge cake only has egg yolks and chiffon has yolks and an oil

    pound cakes have less sugar than high ratio cakes so high ratio cakes require-

    shortening and added emulsifiers

    how did pound cake get its name?

    uses about a pound of each ingredient

    what happens if a cake is over leavened?

    bubbles float to top and pop causing a heavy, dense cake

    best ratio of baking powder____, baking soda ____ and salt per cup of flour for cakes.

    bp: 1 tsp
    bs: 1/4 tsp
    salt: 1/2 tsp for flavor

    what is the baseline moisture for cakes? how is it increased? which is better for moisture oil or butter?

    -1 egg + 3 yolks (whites dry out)
    -sugar
    -oil coats flour proteins so it is better

    why is shortening already aerated?

    has nitrogen and emulsifiers to add to volume

    why are butter and shortening better than oils for cakes?

    they give larger volume, smaller crumb and give more flavor
    (never use margarine)

    to get a light and airy cake use the _________ method.

    creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients

    to get a velvety, melt in mouth cake texture use the ______ method.

    2 stage method which mixes dry ingredients in with all fat before eggs and other liquids are added (can be heavier and fragile)

    other names for creaming cake method-
    other names for 2 step sake method-

    -sugar-shortening, sugar batter, conventional method
    -blending, pastry blend, flour batter

    what are the possible pitfalls of the creaming cake method?

    -temp of ingredients
    -need to cream 100%
    -over adding liquid causes too much gluten and touch texture

    why are eggs added last when making cake?

    to avoid gluten development

    what is tofu?

    cheese made from soy milk

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