Food Service Technology Certificate Exam Key Terms flashcards | Quizlet

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  • Accounts payable module

    tracks purchases, creditor positions, and the hotel's banking status

    Accounts receivable module

    monitors outstanding balances of guest accounts

    Automatic coursing

    a POS system function that automatically sends orders to the kitchen simultaneously based on course

    Call accounting system (CAS)

    a property management system interface that enables a hotel to take control over local and long-distance telephone services and to apply a markup to switchboard operations

    Competitive advantage

    an advantage that can be established via product differentiation, use of technology, lower production costs, or use of marker segmentation

    Electronic locking system (ELS)

    interfaces with a property management system and allows the front desk to control the locking of rooms electronically

    Energy management system (EMS)

    electronically monitors guestroom temperatures

    Financial reporting module

    tracks accounts receivable, accounts payable, cash, and adjusting entries

    Guest accounting module

    front office application software that maintains guest accounts electronically. The guest accounting module increases the hotel's control over guest accounts and significantly modifies the night audit routine


    connection and interaction between hardware, software, and the user

    Inventory module

    automates several internal control and accounting functions

    Payroll accounting module

    handles job codes, employee meals, uniform credits, tips, taxes, and other data that affect the net pay of employees

    Point-of-sales (POS) system

    network of terminals that are combines with cash registers, bar code readers, optical scanners, and magnetic stripe readers for instantly capturing sales transactions. In restaurants, these systems manage the ordering and delivery of all menu items In one or more restaurants and/or bars

    Product differentiation

    the art of applying technology to produce a feature or product that is unique

    Property management system (PMS)

    set of computer programs that directly relate to a hotel's front office and back office activities

    Property management system interfaces

    stand-alone technology systems that may be linked to a hotel's PMS; the formats and languages that define data that one system is capable of delivering to another

    Purchasing module

    enhances management's control over purchasing, ordering, and receiving practices

    Reservation module

    front office application software that enables a hotel to rapidly process room requests and generate timely and accurate rooms, revenue, and forecasting reports

    Rooms management module

    front office application software that maintains up-to-date information regarding the status of rooms, assists in the assignment of rooms during registration, and helps coordinate many guest services


    all aspects of business and market processes enabled by the internet and web-based technologies

    electronic data interchange (EDI)

    transfer of fata between different companies using networks such as the internet. As more and more companies are connected to the internet, EDI is an increasingly important mechanism for companies to buy, sell, and trade info

    electronic distribution

    selling products or services over the internet or some other electronic medium. Hospitality electronic distribution includes the GDS and internet-based sales channels

    enterprise system

    addresses the technology needs of multi-property hospitality organizations, such as hotel and restaurant chains as well age management companies


    portion of a public website that gives a company's corporate and business partners access to a password-protected portion of the site. A website administrator assigns access parameters for what documents, discussions, and areas can be viewed

    global distribution system (GDS)

    electronic networks used by travel agents and some internet-based distribution channels to make airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations

    high-speed internet access (HSIA)

    any one of a variety of services that provide fast access to the internet. The most common and cost-effective types of HSIA include DSL and cable modem services. Cable modem services are generally provided by a local cable TV provider and utilize cable facilities to provide fast internet access. Other forms of HSIA include satellite, private data line, and frame relay services.

    HyperText transfer protocol (http)

    set of file download commands embedded within the hypertext markup language used to place text, graphics, video, and other information displays on the World Wide Web


    interconnected system of networks that share standards and protocols connecting computers around the world

    Internet distribution system (IDS)

    internet-based services providing consumers with the ability to book airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations


    portion of a public website partitioned and password-protected for access by employees or special workgroups. This private, secure site is used to share documents, calendars, and event info. An intranet site is an ideal online communication tool for centralizing important company info, posting documents, creating schedule, and announcing events

    Online social network (OSN)

    a virtual community of people with similar interests and/or activities

    Proxy URLs

    alternative addresses for a company's website that all point to the same main web page

    Search engine

    software that reads indexed websites and creates lists and links to sites that match a user's inquiry


    controls the flow of info along a network and establishes a gateway to other computer networks

    Uniform resource locator (URL)

    designates the internet address of a site usually the site's homepage

    World wide web (www)

    a user-friendly part of the internet that offers an incredibly rich combination of text, images, sound, animation, and video


    a flashing marker on a display screen that indicates where the next character to be entered will appear

    Hard copy

    a printed paper copy of system-processed info

    Impact printer

    an electronic printer, such as a dot matrix printer, that print character by character and line by line

    Ink jet printer

    an electronic nonimpact printer that works by spraying a minute and finely controlled jet of ink onto paper. The ink (Carbon) is electrically charged as it is sprayed onto the paper. Once charged, the jet of ink can be moved around by electric fields in much the same way that an electron beam is used to produce a picture on a television set.

    Laser printer

    a high-speed electronic nonimpact printer similar in appearance to desktop photocopying machines. While other printers print one character at a time, laser technology enables these devices to print an entire page all at once


    a system output device that is usually capable of displaying both text and graphics in soft copy. Also, these output units may be programmed to various foreground and background color combinations while operating many software applications


    a small manual input unit used in place of, or with, a keyboard or touchscreen. Designed to fit comfortably under a user's hand, it controls the cursor or pointer on the display screen. It can also be used to choose commands, move text and icons, and perform a number of other operations

    Nonimpact printer

    a category of electronic printers that includes thermal, ink jet, and laser printers


    a system input device capable of translating a page of text into a machine-readable format by converting the images on a page into digitized information that the system can recognize

    Soft copy

    output on a monitor that cannot be handled by the operator or be removed from the system

    Touchscreen terminal

    a terminal that contains a unique adaptation of a screen and a special Microprocessor to control it. The self-contained microprocessor displays data on areas of the screen that are sensitive to touch. Touching one of the sensitized areas produces an electronic charge that is translated into digital signals telling what area was touched for transmission to the microprocessor. This signal also instructs the microprocessor to display the next screen

    Voice recognition

    a form of input that converts spoken data directly into electronic form suitable for processing

    Bus system

    the electronic circuitry over which power, data, address, and other signals travel

    Central processing unit (CPU)

    the control center of a system. Inside are the circuits and mechanisms that process and store information and send instructions to the other system components

    Dual-core processing

    a CPU containing two microprocessors that permit more effective multitasking of separate applications running simultaneously or of a single dual-core application written to take advantage of multi-threading

    Expanded memory

    the additional memory capacity that resides outside the system's basic memory. It can be accessed in revolving blocks, and is available as add-on boards that are inserted into one of the system's expansion slots

    Extended memory

    memory that reaches beyond a system's basic limits; usually required for advanced multitasking (running several applications simultaneously)

    Gigahertz (GHz)

    a unit of electrical frequency equal to one billion cycles per second; used to measure the speed of a system's central processing unit


    a systems term referring to the physical equipment of a system. Hardware is visible, movable, and easy to identify. In order to have a system, three hardware components are required: an input/output component, a central processing unit (CPU), and an external storage device

    Megahertz (MHz)

    a unit of electrical frequency equal to one million cycles per second; used to measure the speed of a system's central processing unit

    Nonvolatile memory

    memory that holds its content without power. A term describing ROM (Read only memory); programs stored in ROM are not lost when the system is turned off or otherwise loses electrical power.

    Operating system

    responsible for orchestrating the hardware and the software within the system. It establishes the system's priorities and directs its resources to accomplish desired tasks

    Random access memory (RAM)

    often abbreviated as RAM, a portion of a system's internal memory that holds a temporary version of the programs or data that users are processing

    Read-only memory (ROM)

    often abbreviated as ROM, a portion of the internal memory of a system that holds a permanent record of information that the system needs to use each time it is turned on


    a system is said to "read" when it takes data in for processing, and "write" when it sends processed data out as information. RAM is often described as read/write memory; the user can both read from RAM (retrieve data) and write to RAM (store data)


    a systems term referring to a set of programs that instructs or controls the operation of the system's hardware components. Software programs tell the system what to do, how to do it, and when to do it


    universal serial bus; a peripheral device connector that is much faster than parallel or serial ports

    Volatile memory

    a systems term used to describe random access memory (RAM). When the memory device loses electrical power, or is deliberately turned off, all user data stored in RAM is lost. In order to save data stored in RAM for future use, the user must instruct the system to save it on a nonvolatile storage device


    a process that creates the tracks and sectors of a disk on which the system is able to read and write info

    Hard disks

    external storage devices that are much faster to use and store far greater amounts of info than magnetic disks. Hard disks are permanently online to the system

    Magnetic disks

    external storage media, also called diskettes or floppies, frequently used for shipping data and programs from one location to another. They are made of thin, flexible plastic that is protected by a jacket. The plastic is coated with a magnetized oxide compound designed to hold electronic information. The size of the disk (eight-inch, Five-and-one-quarter inch, or three-and-one-half inch) depends on the type of system used

    Random access medium

    a characteristic of an external storage medium (such as magnetic disks) permitting data to be stored in any available location on the disk. Since the tracks and sectors of the disk are numbered, the system allows a user to access stored data quickly and easily

    Sequential access medium

    a systems term referring to an external storage medium, such as a magnetic tape, which stores data in chronological sequence

    USB drive

    a data storage device that connects to a USB port

    Zip disk

    compresses data to conserve storage space and requires a unique zip drive to operate


    a hardware component of the internet that connects two or more networks that use the same data transfer protocol. A bridge makes attached networks appear to operate as a single network. The purposes of a bridge are to extend network capabilities and to isolate network traffic

    Cloud computing

    term used to describe off-premises, as opposed to on-site, automation


    internet technology applied to create a password-protected, restricted-access portion of a website


    a hardware component of the internet that provides a means for two incompatible networks to communicate. A gateway simply converts the sending system's request into a format that the receiving system can understand


    internet technology applied to create a privatized, partitioned web-access area. Intranets are generally restricted to company employees, business associates, and private club members


    a configuration of workstations that enables users to share data, programs, and component devices (such as monitors and printers).


    a hardware component of the internet that directs messages between different areas of the internet

    WiFi network

    a local area network that uses a wireless transmission protocol

    Affiliate reservation system

    a hotel chain's reservation system in which all participating properties are contractually related. Each property is represented in the computer system database and is required to provide room availability data to the reservations center on a timely basis.


    the simultaneous purchase and sale of an asset in order to profit from a price difference

    Central reservation office

    typically deals directly with the public, advertises a central telephone number, provides participating properties with necessary communications equipment, and bills properties for handling reservations

    Central reservation system

    an external reservation network

    Commission agent report

    delineates reservation transactions and commissions payable, by agent.

    Distribution service provider (DSP)

    an intermediary between a CRS and e-distribution channels that provides single image inventory information to participating online GDS and IDS entities and communicates reservation information back to the CRS. Also called a switching company.


    the selling of products or services over the internet or some other electronic medium. Hospitality e-distribution includes the GDS and internet-based sales channels

    expected arrivals list

    a daily report showing the number of guests and the names of the guests expected to arrive with reservations

    expected departures list

    a daily report showing the number of guests expected to depart, the number of stayovers (the difference between arrivals and departures), and the names of guests associated with each transaction

    global distribution system (GDS)

    electronic networks used by travel agents and some internet-based distribution channels to make airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations.

    Internet distribution system (IDS)

    internet-based services providing consumers the ability to book airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations

    Intersell agency

    a reservation network that handles more than one product line. Intersell Agencies typically handle reservations for airline flights, car rentals, and hotel rooms.

    Merchant model

    an e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds its own markup factor and sells the rooms to consumers. Also called the markup model.

    Nonaffiliate reservation system

    a subscription system linking independent properties. A hotel subscribes to the system's services and takes responsibility for updating the system with accurate room availability data

    Overrun facility

    a hotel property selected to receive reservation requests after chain properties have exhausted room availabilities in a geographic region

    Real time capability

    refers to simultaneous processing. For example, real time capability enables a reservationist to receive necessary feedback from the system immediately in order to respond to a caller's requests during a telephone call

    Reservation inquiry

    a reservation request is formulated into a reservation inquiry by the reservationist. This inquiry typically collects the following data: date of arrival, type and number of rooms requested, number of room nights, room rate code (standard, special, package, etc.), and number of persons in party

    Reservation record

    the reservationist's initial inquiry procedures create a reservation record that initiates the hotel guest cycle. Reservation record identify guest and their needs before guests arrive at the property; such record enable the hotel to personalize guest service and appropriately schedule needed personnel

    Reservation transaction record

    provides a daily summary of reservation records that were created, modified, or canceled

    Revenue forecast report

    projects future revenue by multiplying predicted occupancies by current house rates

    Revenue management

    a set of demand forecasting techniques used to develop pricing strategies that maximize rooms revenue for a lodging property

    Rooms availability report

    lists, by room type, the number of rooms that are available each day (net remaining rooms in each category).

    Seamless integration

    the ability of travel agencies to book reservations directly into hotel reservation systems, as well as verify room availability and rates

    Single image inventory

    a configuration in which all e-distribution channels operate from the same database

    Smart switch

    translates reservations transactions into as many unique formats as required by diverse network interconnections, thereby allowing users to share data from different reservation systems without having to deal with complex formats, files, and operating systems. The smart switch can access reservation system files and convert the data into easy-to-use formats and files

    System update

    performs many of the same functions performed by the night audit routine in nonautomated properties. System updates are run daily to allow for report production, system file reorganization, and system maintenance, and to provide an end-of-day time frame

    Turnaway report

    also called a refusal report, tracks the number of room nights refused because rooms were not available for sale. This report is especially helpful to hotels with expansion plans

    Wholesaler model

    an e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds a standard markup factor and sells the rooms to consumer. Also called the commission model

    Actual departures report

    lists the names of guests who have checked out and their room numbers, billing, addresses, and folio numbers

    Expected arrival/departure report

    a daily report showing the number and names of guests expected to arrive with reservations, as well as the number and names of guests expected to depart.

    Housekeeper assignment report

    used to assign floor and room numbers to room attendants and to list room status. This report may also provide space for special messages from the housekeeping department

    Housekeeper productivity report

    provides a relative-productivity index for each housekeeper by listing the number of rooms cleaned and the amount of time taken to clean each room

    Registration progress report

    provides the rooms department with a summary of current house information; may list present check-ins, number of occupied rooms, names of guests who have reservations but are not yet registered, and the number of rooms available for sale; may also profile room status, rooms revenue, and average room rate

    Room status

    the state of a hotel room in terms of its availability and cleanliness. Information about current room availability is essential in order for front desk employees to properly assign rooms to guests at check-in. The current status of a room is crucial to the immediate, short-run selling position of that room

    Room status discrepancy

    a situation in which the housekeeping department's description of a room's status differs from the room status information that guides front desk employees in assigning rooms to guests

    Rooms activity forecast

    provides information on anticipated arrivals, departures, stayovers, and vacancies. This report assists managers in staffing front desk and housekeeping areas.

    Rooms allotment report

    summarizes rooms committed (booked or blocked) by future date

    Rooms discrepancy report

    signals to management the specific rooms whose status must be investigated to avoid sleepers. The report notes any variances between front desk and housekeeping room status updates

    Rooms history report

    depicts the revenue history and use of each room by room type. This
    report is especially useful to those properties employing an automatic room assignment function

    Rooms productivity report

    ranks room types by percentage of occupancy and/or by percentage of total rooms revenue

    Rooms status report

    indicates the current status of rooms according to housekeeping designations, such as on-change, out-of-order, and clean and ready for inspection


    a vacant room that is believed to be occupied because the room rack slip or registration card was not removed from the rack when the guest departed (in nonautomated hotels) or because of room status report discrepancies or errors (in automated hotels).

    Control folio

    constructed for each revenue center and used to track all transactions posted to other folios (individual, master, non-guest, or employee). Control folios provide a basis for double entry accounting and for cross-checking the balances of all electronic folios

    Credit monitoring routine

    compares a guest's current folio balance with a credit limit (also called a house limit) that is predetermined by management

    Employee folio

    used to track employee purchases, compute discounts, monitor expense account activity, and separate authorized business charges from personal expenditures

    Guest check control report

    compares guest checks used in revenue outlets, such as in food and beverage outlets, with source documents to identify discrepancies

    House limit

    a credit limit predetermined by management

    Identification code

    generally, the first few letters of a guest's last name. An identification code enables the guest accounting module to process a charge to the correct folio when two separate accounts exist under the same room number

    Individual folio

    assigned to an in-house guest for the purpose of charting the guest's
    financial transactions with the hotel

    Late charges

    charges purchases made by guests that are posted to folios after guests have settled their accounts

    Ledger summary report

    presents guest, non-guest, and credit card activity by beginning balance, cumulative charges, and credits

    Master folio

    generally applies to more than one guest or room and contains a record of transactions that are not posted to individual folios. Master folios are commonly created to provide the kind of billing service required by most groups and conventions

    Non-guest folio

    created for an individual who has in-house charge privileges but is not registered as a guest in the hotel. Individuals with non-guest folios may include health club members, corporate clients, special club members, political leaders, or local celebrities

    Permanent folio

    used to track guest folio balances that are settled to a credit card company

    Reference code

    generally, the serial number of a departmental source document

    Revenue center report

    shows cash, charge, and paid-out totals by department and serves as a macro-analysis of departmental transactions

    Semi-permanent folio

    used to track "bill to" accounts receivable

    Source document

    a printed voucher, usually serially numbered for internal-control purposes, from a revenue-producing department showing an amount that is charged to a folio

    Transfer report

    shows transfers to non-guest (city) ledgers from guest accounts

    PC-based register configuration (PCR)

    a POS system design that networks terminals to form an integrated system that functions without a large, remote CPU

    Point-of-sale terminal

    Contains its own input/output component and may even possess a small storage (memory) capacity, but usually does not contain its own central processing unit

    Active call accounting system

    enables a hotel to take control over local and long-distance services and apply a markup to switchboard operations. Call accounting systems are capable of placing and pricing local and long-distance calls

    Automatic identification of outward dialing

    a feature of a call accounting system that immediately identifies the extension from which an outgoing call is placed

    Automatic route selection

    a feature of a call accounting system that provides the capability of connecting with a variety of common carriers

    Call record

    electronic or hard copy documentation containing essential transactional support data for individually placed and rated telephone calls

    Common carrier

    any recognized entity that transmits messages or other communication for general use at accepted rates

    Least-cost routing

    a feature of an active call accounting system that directs calls over the least-cost available line, regardless of carrier

    Passive call accounting system

    under this system, no options are available to the call distribution network. Selection of a route is based on convenience rather than on minimizing expense.

    Ringback mechanism

    a feature of a call accounting system that ensures that a guest is charged only for calls that are answered

    Station message detail record

    a feature of a call accounting system that charts and monitors telephone traffic.

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