NSF Health Guard Food Manager Certification flashcards | Quizlet
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  • Egg Cooking Temperature

    145*F

    Ground Meat Cooking Temperature

    155*F

    Beef, Veal, Lamb Cooking Temperature

    145*

    Pork Cooking Temperature

    145*

    Fish Cooking Temperature

    145*

    Whole beef or pork roasts cooking temperature

    145*

    Poultry cooking temperature

    165*

    Stuffed meat product cooking temperature

    165*

    Reheating cooking temperature

    165*

    Microwave cooking temperature

    165*

    Hot holding temperature

    135* or above

    Cold holding temperature

    41* or below

    Temperature danger zone

    41-135

    Super danger zone for temperature

    70-125

    FIFO

    First in, first out

    Foodborne illness

    Any infection or illness that is transferred to people by the food they eat

    Foodborne disease outbreak

    The occurrence or TWO OR MORE cases of similar illness resulting from the ingestions of a common food

    Who is part of the highly susceptible population?

    Young children, the elderly, pregnant women, those who have weakened immune systems

    Pathogen

    microorganisms that cause disease

    Potentially hazardous foods

    Foods that will support the growth of microorganisms or have previously been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks

    Milk/Milk Products

    PHF (milk)

    Cut tomatos

    PHF (tomato)

    Poultry

    PHF (poultry)

    Tofu

    PHF (tofu)

    Baked or boiled potatoes

    PHF (potatoes)

    Cooked rice

    PHF (rice)

    Shell eggs

    PHF (eggs)

    Cut leafy greens

    PHF (greens)

    Fish

    PHF (fish)

    Garlic in oil mixtures

    PHF (garlic in oil)

    Fresh sprouts and seeds

    PHF (sprouts and seeds)

    Cooked beans

    PHF (beans)

    Meats

    PHF (meats - beef pork lamb)

    Shellfish and Crustaceans

    PHF (shellfish)

    Cut melons

    PHF (cut melons)

    Soy-protein foods

    PHF (soy)

    Heat-treated plants foods

    PHF (heat-treated plant)

    Ready-to-eat foods

    Foods that require no further preparation (washing or cooking) prior to consumption

    Potentially hazardous foods are generally...

    high in protein, moist, and chemically neutral or only slightly acidic.

    Five risk factors for foodborne illness

    1. Held at improper temperature. 2.Undercooked food. 3. Contaminated food equipment 4. Food from an unsafe source (non-approved suppliers). 5. Poor personal hygiene.

    Foodborne illness is responsible for how many (million) illnesses and how many deaths per year in the US?

    76 million illnesses and 5,000 deaths.

    Consumer must prove these 3 things if they believe they became ill from food

    1. The food served to them was unsafe. 2. The food served caused them harm. 3. The food service operator violated the warranty of sale.

    Warranty of sale

    Implied guarantee that product sold is safe

    Person in Charge

    The person present at a food establishment who is responsible for the operation at the time of inspection

    3 categories of hazards

    Physical, chemical, and biological

    Physical hazards and examples

    Any foreign object or particle that may be introduced into food. e.g. a bandaid, metal shavings from a can, jewelry

    Chemical hazards and examples

    Chemical substance that can contaminate food. e.g. sanitizer, copper from food equipment, acidic foods and galvanized equipment

    Food allergy

    Considered a chemical hazard.

    Common allergies include

    8 major allergens: milk, eggs, fish, soy, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat proteins. As well as MSG, nitrites and sulfites.

    Biological hazards and examples

    Any living organisms, or the waste of living organisms, that may contaminate food. Microorganisms. Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi.

    The single greatest threat to food safety is...

    microorganisms

    Foodborne intoxication

    an illness caused by eating a food containing a chemical hazard or toxin

    Foodborne infection

    An illness caused by eating food containing live pathogenic organisms

    Toxin-mediated foodborne infection

    An illness caused by eating food containing live pathogenic organisms that reproduce within the intestines and produce toxins.

    6 factors that affect bacterial growth

    FAT TOM - food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, moisture

    FAT TOM

    Food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, moisture

    Bacteria will grow on foods with a water activity of....

    .85 or higher.

    Which factors of FAT TOM are the most important?

    Time and temperature

    Aerobic bacteria

    Bacteria that requires oxygen to grow

    Anaerobic bacteria

    Bacteria that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen

    Bacteria grow in 4 phases:

    Lag, log, stationary, decline

    Lag phase

    Beginning phase when bacteria adjust to environment - food taken out of freezer

    Log phase

    Bacteria adjust to their surroundings and begin to rapidly reproduce - room temperature, temp danger zone

    Stationary phase

    When the rate that bacteria reproduce is the same as the rate at which bacteria die

    Decline phase

    When bacteria die off faster than they multiply

    Bacteria multiply every _, _, _ minutes

    9, 15, 20 minutes

    Spore

    Inactive or dormant state of some types of bacteria in which it is protected from harsh environment but cannot reproduce

    Sporeforming bacteria can survive the cooking process: True or false

    True

    Vegetative bacteria cell

    From a spore, an active cell which can reproduce and produce waste

    Viruses

    Smallest form of microorganisms. Cannot reproduce on their own or grow on food e.g. Hepatitis A, Norovirus

    Parasite

    A very small organism that survives by living on a host organism

    Fungi

    A group of organisms which includes molds, yeasts, and mushrooms.

    Mold

    a type of fungi that spoils food and may produce toxins that pose serious health risks.

    Does cooking destroy mold?

    Yes, but not the toxins they produce. Molded food should be disposed.

    Biological toxins

    naturally occurring, causes foodborne intoxication

    Ciguartera toxin

    In the tissue of certain reef fish - amberjack, barracuda, grouper, snapper. These types of fish must be bought from approved suppliers. Cannot be destroyed by cooking

    Scombroid poisoning

    A type of foodborne intoxication that occurs when a person eats a type of scombroid fish that has not been kept at proper temperatures. Swordfish, tuna, bluefish, mackerel, skipjack. Produces histamine

    Conditional employee

    A potential food employee, to whom an offer is mad, conditional on responses to medical questions to determine whether the employee may be suffering from a disease that can be transmitted through food.

    Personal hygeine

    an individual's general state of health, his hygienic practices and habits, and the cleanliness of his person and clothing

    Hepatitis A

    A disease caused by a virus that can be transmitted through food by poor personal hygiene practices or by contaminated water.

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    E. coli - especially those which produce Shiga toxins.

    These illness are cause for exclusion or restriction.

    Norovirus
    Hepatitis A
    Shigella, Enterohemorrhagic, or Shiga Toxin E. Coli
    Salmonella Typhi

    When is the person in charge required to maintain confidentiality of an employee's illness?

    Always!

    How long should an employee be excluded if serving a high risk population?

    Salmonella Typhi - 3 months
    E. Coli - 1 month

    According to the BOOK, how long should you spend actively washing your hands with soap during the handwashing process?

    15 seconds.

    Handwashing process

    Wet hands with warm running water
    Apply soap
    Rub hands together for 15 seconds, including between fingers and under fingernails.
    Rinse
    Dry hands using single-use paper towels
    Turn off faucet with paper towels

    Do you have to wash your hands before putting on gloves?

    Yes

    What is the only type of jewelry allowed to be worn by food handlers?

    A plan wedding bands. Even medical jewelry is prohibited.

    Beef receiving qualifications

    Bright red, firm, and elastic. USDA inspection marked. 41* or below.

    Pork receiving qualifications

    Pink, firm, and elastic. USDA inspection marked. 41* or below.

    Poultry receiving qualifications

    Almost white in color, no dark discolorations. No noticeable odor. Not sticky. USDA inspection marked. 41* or below.

    Fish receiving qualifications

    Bright red gills, clear eyes. No sticky gills. Should be packed in ice. Fish should feel firm. No "fishy" odor. Received from licensed and approved vendors. Between 32 and 41.

    Shellfish receiving qualifications

    Must be alive and packed on ice. Seawater smell. Shellstock identification tags, saved for 90 days. Between 32 and 41

    Crustacea receiving qualifications

    Alive and packed on ice. Between 32 and 41

    Egg receiving qualifications

    Clean and intact. 45* or below

    Dairy product receiving qualifications

    Liquid milk must be pasteurized and marked as Grade A. Sell by dates on packaging. 41* or below.

    Frozen food receiving qualifications

    Must be received fully frozen. Large ice crystals indicates the item has been refrozen.

    The first line of defense against foodborne illness is...

    ...starting with safe products and ingredients.

    FDA food code freezing temps for fish

    -4* or below for 7 days
    -31* or below for 15 hours
    OR -31* until solid and then stored at -4 for 24 hours

    Hot holding product temperature should be checked at least every __ hours

    Every 2 hours

    Time and temperature foods must be cooled within

    From 135 to 70 within 2 hours. From 70 to 41 in four hours.

    Products thawed under running cool water can be done so for how long?

    Up to 2 hours.

    Types of cross-contamination

    People-to-food
    food-to-food
    equipment-to-food

    Cleaning

    The process of removing visible soil from a surface

    Sanitizing

    The process of reducing the number of live microorganisms on a surface to levels that are considered safe.

    What comes first: Cleaning or sanitizing?

    Clean THEN sanitize

    Factors that affect the cleaning process

    Type of soil
    Quality of water used
    Temperature of the water
    Type of cleaning agent used
    Concentration of cleaning agent
    Length of time cleaning agent is in contact with the item
    Force used to clean

    Types of cleaning agents

    Detergents
    Degreasers
    Acid cleaners
    Abrasives

    Three most common chemical sanitizers

    Chlorine, Iodine, Quats

    Chlorine

    Cheapest and most commonly used sanitizer. Concentration of 50 ppm between 75 and 115

    Iodine

    Chemical sanitizer that is effective at low concentrations and is less corrosive and irritating than chlorine. 12.5 to 25 ppm. Between 75 and 120

    Quats

    Chemical sanitizer that is noncorrosive, nonirritating, and is effective at most temperatures and PH levels. 200ppm and temps above 75*

    In-place cleaning and sanitizing

    Method of cleaning and sanitizing in which objects are manually washed, rinsed, and sanitized without moving the objects to a sink or warewashing machine.

    MSDS

    Materials Safety Data Sheets

    MSDS contains

    Manufacturers contact information
    Physical and chemical properties of the product
    Information about the safe use and handling of the material
    Fire, explosion, reactivity and health hazard information
    PPE information
    Emergency procedures and first aid
    The date the MSDS was prepared

    Wood may be used for cutting boards, etc if

    the wood is hard maple or equivalent.

    Refrigerator certified as

    NSF/ANSI 7 Commercial refrigerators and freezers.

    Cooking equipment certified as

    NSF/ANSI 4 Commercial cooking, rethermalization, and powered hot food holding and transport equipment.

    3 compartment sink

    Rinse, scrape or soak
    Wash with detergent
    Rinse
    Sanitize
    Air dry

    Refuse

    Any form of waste material, including trash, garbage, and recyclable materials

    Garbage

    refuse containing food matter or wet material

    Types of flies

    House flies, blow flies, fruit flies

    Cockroaches

    The American, German, Oriental and Brown Banded. The German is the most common in the US

    Signs of cockroach infestation

    Small, capsule shaped egg casings, droppings that resembled grains of black pepper

    Rodents

    House mouse, roof rat, Norway rat

    Signs of rodent infestation

    Runways, burrows, droppings (shiny at first, gray if old), rubmarks, tracks, and gnaw marks

    Integrated pest management

    a system for controlling pests and vermin that includes preventing access into a facility, maintaining a clean facility in good repair, minimizing food and water sources, eliminating harborage areas, and working with a licensed PCO to deal with any pests that enter the facility.

    Potable vs non potable water

    Potable water is free of contaminant, safe for drinking. Non-potable water is known to contain contaminants, not safe for human consumption.

    Cross connection

    A physical connection between a potable water system and a source of contamination

    Backflow

    The flow of non-potable water or contamination into a potable water supply caused by backsiphonage.

    Air gap

    To prevent backflow.

    Imminent health hazard

    A risk to human health that is immediate and potentially quiete sever. E.g. A sewage backup, a loss of electricity, a loss of hot water, a loss of potable water, refrigeration failure, or severe infestations.

    HACCP

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. Developed in 1960. A system of identifying hazards in the food produced, and implementing control measures to prevent or eliminate the hazard, or reducing it to an acceptable level.

    7 Principles of HACCP

    Hazard Analysis
    Identify CCPs
    Establish critical limits
    Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP
    Establish corrective actions
    Establish verification procedures to confirm HACCP plan is working
    Establish documentation procedures/record keeping.

    Critical limit is...

    The temperature. a number.

    Validation

    Checking the HACCP plan to make sure it is current and the measure work for what is being served, etc.

    Verification

    The written checks that happen during the implementation of the HACCP plan and then put into record keeping.

    Recordkeeping

    BOUND record book, all documents signed by 2.

    Salmonella/Salmonellosis is a

    Bacteria

    Salmonella

    Infection from raw meats, poultry, eggs, etc. Onset 6-48 hours after ingestion.

    Clostridium botulinum/Botulism is a

    Bacteria

    Botulism

    Intoxication from canned foods. Onset 4-36 hours after ingestion.

    Campylobacter jejuni is a

    Bacteria

    Campylobacteriosis

    Infection from poultry. Cattle and sheep can infect milk from the animals. Raw poultry and unpasteurized milk. Onset 2-4 days after ingestion.

    Listeria monocytogenes/Lysteriosis is a

    Bacteria

    Lysteriosis

    Infection from soft cheeses, unpasteurized milk, imported seafood. Onset 3-70 days after ingestion, usually 2-3 days.

    Clostridium perfringens is a

    Bacteria

    Perfringens food poisoning

    Toxin-mediated infection from slowly cooled foods, usually from meats. Spore-forming activity. Onset 8-12 hours after ingestion.

    Shigella species is a

    Bacteria

    See More

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