Foodborne disease outbreak
The occurrence or TWO OR MORE cases of similar illness resulting from the ingestions of a common food
Who is part of the highly susceptible population?
Young children, the elderly, pregnant women, those who have weakened immune systems
Potentially hazardous foods
Foods that will support the growth of microorganisms or have previously been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks
Foods that require no further preparation (washing or cooking) prior to consumption
Potentially hazardous foods are generally...
high in protein, moist, and chemically neutral or only slightly acidic.
Five risk factors for foodborne illness
1. Held at improper temperature. 2.Undercooked food. 3. Contaminated food equipment 4. Food from an unsafe source (non-approved suppliers). 5. Poor personal hygiene.
Foodborne illness is responsible for how many (million) illnesses and how many deaths per year in the US?
76 million illnesses and 5,000 deaths.
Consumer must prove these 3 things if they believe they became ill from food
1. The food served to them was unsafe. 2. The food served caused them harm. 3. The food service operator violated the warranty of sale.
Person in Charge
The person present at a food establishment who is responsible for the operation at the time of inspection
Physical hazards and examples
Any foreign object or particle that may be introduced into food. e.g. a bandaid, metal shavings from a can, jewelry
Chemical hazards and examples
Chemical substance that can contaminate food. e.g. sanitizer, copper from food equipment, acidic foods and galvanized equipment
Common allergies include
8 major allergens: milk, eggs, fish, soy, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat proteins. As well as MSG, nitrites and sulfites.
Biological hazards and examples
Any living organisms, or the waste of living organisms, that may contaminate food. Microorganisms. Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi.
Toxin-mediated foodborne infection
An illness caused by eating food containing live pathogenic organisms that reproduce within the intestines and produce toxins.
Bacteria adjust to their surroundings and begin to rapidly reproduce - room temperature, temp danger zone
When the rate that bacteria reproduce is the same as the rate at which bacteria die
Inactive or dormant state of some types of bacteria in which it is protected from harsh environment but cannot reproduce
Smallest form of microorganisms. Cannot reproduce on their own or grow on food e.g. Hepatitis A, Norovirus
In the tissue of certain reef fish - amberjack, barracuda, grouper, snapper. These types of fish must be bought from approved suppliers. Cannot be destroyed by cooking
A type of foodborne intoxication that occurs when a person eats a type of scombroid fish that has not been kept at proper temperatures. Swordfish, tuna, bluefish, mackerel, skipjack. Produces histamine
A potential food employee, to whom an offer is mad, conditional on responses to medical questions to determine whether the employee may be suffering from a disease that can be transmitted through food.
an individual's general state of health, his hygienic practices and habits, and the cleanliness of his person and clothing
A disease caused by a virus that can be transmitted through food by poor personal hygiene practices or by contaminated water.
These illness are cause for exclusion or restriction.
Shigella, Enterohemorrhagic, or Shiga Toxin E. Coli
How long should an employee be excluded if serving a high risk population?
Salmonella Typhi - 3 months
E. Coli - 1 month
According to the BOOK, how long should you spend actively washing your hands with soap during the handwashing process?
Wet hands with warm running water
Rub hands together for 15 seconds, including between fingers and under fingernails.
Dry hands using single-use paper towels
Turn off faucet with paper towels
What is the only type of jewelry allowed to be worn by food handlers?
A plan wedding bands. Even medical jewelry is prohibited.
Poultry receiving qualifications
Almost white in color, no dark discolorations. No noticeable odor. Not sticky. USDA inspection marked. 41* or below.
Fish receiving qualifications
Bright red gills, clear eyes. No sticky gills. Should be packed in ice. Fish should feel firm. No "fishy" odor. Received from licensed and approved vendors. Between 32 and 41.
Shellfish receiving qualifications
Must be alive and packed on ice. Seawater smell. Shellstock identification tags, saved for 90 days. Between 32 and 41
Dairy product receiving qualifications
Liquid milk must be pasteurized and marked as Grade A. Sell by dates on packaging. 41* or below.
Frozen food receiving qualifications
Must be received fully frozen. Large ice crystals indicates the item has been refrozen.
The first line of defense against foodborne illness is...
...starting with safe products and ingredients.
FDA food code freezing temps for fish
-4* or below for 7 days
-31* or below for 15 hours
OR -31* until solid and then stored at -4 for 24 hours
Time and temperature foods must be cooled within
From 135 to 70 within 2 hours. From 70 to 41 in four hours.
The process of reducing the number of live microorganisms on a surface to levels that are considered safe.
Factors that affect the cleaning process
Type of soil
Quality of water used
Temperature of the water
Type of cleaning agent used
Concentration of cleaning agent
Length of time cleaning agent is in contact with the item
Force used to clean
Chemical sanitizer that is effective at low concentrations and is less corrosive and irritating than chlorine. 12.5 to 25 ppm. Between 75 and 120
Chemical sanitizer that is noncorrosive, nonirritating, and is effective at most temperatures and PH levels. 200ppm and temps above 75*
In-place cleaning and sanitizing
Method of cleaning and sanitizing in which objects are manually washed, rinsed, and sanitized without moving the objects to a sink or warewashing machine.
Manufacturers contact information
Physical and chemical properties of the product
Information about the safe use and handling of the material
Fire, explosion, reactivity and health hazard information
Emergency procedures and first aid
The date the MSDS was prepared
Cooking equipment certified as
NSF/ANSI 4 Commercial cooking, rethermalization, and powered hot food holding and transport equipment.
The American, German, Oriental and Brown Banded. The German is the most common in the US
Signs of cockroach infestation
Small, capsule shaped egg casings, droppings that resembled grains of black pepper
Signs of rodent infestation
Runways, burrows, droppings (shiny at first, gray if old), rubmarks, tracks, and gnaw marks
Integrated pest management
a system for controlling pests and vermin that includes preventing access into a facility, maintaining a clean facility in good repair, minimizing food and water sources, eliminating harborage areas, and working with a licensed PCO to deal with any pests that enter the facility.
Potable vs non potable water
Potable water is free of contaminant, safe for drinking. Non-potable water is known to contain contaminants, not safe for human consumption.
The flow of non-potable water or contamination into a potable water supply caused by backsiphonage.
Imminent health hazard
A risk to human health that is immediate and potentially quiete sever. E.g. A sewage backup, a loss of electricity, a loss of hot water, a loss of potable water, refrigeration failure, or severe infestations.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. Developed in 1960. A system of identifying hazards in the food produced, and implementing control measures to prevent or eliminate the hazard, or reducing it to an acceptable level.
7 Principles of HACCP
Establish critical limits
Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP
Establish corrective actions
Establish verification procedures to confirm HACCP plan is working
Establish documentation procedures/record keeping.
Checking the HACCP plan to make sure it is current and the measure work for what is being served, etc.
The written checks that happen during the implementation of the HACCP plan and then put into record keeping.
Infection from poultry. Cattle and sheep can infect milk from the animals. Raw poultry and unpasteurized milk. Onset 2-4 days after ingestion.
Infection from soft cheeses, unpasteurized milk, imported seafood. Onset 3-70 days after ingestion, usually 2-3 days.
Perfringens food poisoning
Toxin-mediated infection from slowly cooled foods, usually from meats. Spore-forming activity. Onset 8-12 hours after ingestion.
Toxin-mediated infection from milk and dairy products, poultry, and potato salad left at room temperature. Usually from a human carrier with unwashed hands. Onset 12-96 hours after ingestion.
Intoxication from hair, skin. High protein foods at room temperature are good environments for these bacteria to produce toxin. Onset 30 mins - 8 hours after ingestion.
Infection from bacteria in warm, coastal waters found a way into human carrier, or infected seafood, especially oysters. Onset within 16 hours of ingestion.
Infection from meats, oysters, fish, and raw milk. Person to person transfer also possible. Onset 1-2 days after ingestion.
Intoxication of toxin-mediated infection from grains, meats, rice products, milk, vegetables. Onset variable depending on symptoms 30 mins - 15 hours after ingestion.
E. coli O157:H7
Acute disease is called Hemorrhagic colitis. Toxin-mediated infection from undercooked or raw beef, alfalfa sprouts, game meat, unpasteurized fruit juices, etc. Onset 12-72 hours after ingestion.
Infection from undercooked, raw, or contaminated fish or shellfish, common along coasts. Onset 4-96 hours after ingestion, usually 15.
Infection from mollusks. Some fruits and vegetables may also be a source. Onset can be 10 days after ingestion, of even up to 2 months for slowly advancing cases.
Infection from contaminated hands, common is wards and day care centers, especially in handling ready-to-eat foods and serving. Onset 1-3 days after ingestion.
Infection from shellfish (raw and insufficiently prepared) and salad ingredients (from an ill food handler), from contaminated water. Onset 1-2 days after ingestion.
Infection from fresh produce contaminated by infected stool. Onset 1 week after ingestion.
Infection from contaminated drinking or recreational waters. Onset 1-3 days after ingestion.
Infection from contaminated drinking or recreational waters. Onset 2-10 days after ingestion.
Infection from seafoods, especially cod, haddock, fluke, pacific salmon, herring, flounder, and monkfish. Onset 1 hour to 2 weeks after ingestion.
Roundworms. Infection from improperly processed meat of animals which are carnivorous, such as pork. Onset time 1 week after consumption.