All food service establishments must have
a current and valid permit issued by the NYC Health Department
When do Health Inspectors have the right to inspect a food service or food processing establishment?
as long as it is in operation
Who is required to have a Food Protection Certificate.
supervisors of all food service establishments
Food is defined as
any edible substance, ice, beverage, or ingredient intended for use and used or sold for human consumption.
Examples of Potentially Hazardous Foods
Examples: raw and cooked meats, poultry, milk and milk products, fish, shellfish, tofu, cooked rice, pasta, beans, potatoes, cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes and melons, garlic in oil etc. (Exceptions: Air-cooled hard-boiled eggs with intact shell, beef jerky, cheese pizza, crispy bacon)
Not Potentially Hazardous prepared Foods
Air-cooled hard-boiled eggs with intact shell, beef jerky, cheese pizza, crispy bacon
The three thermometers allowed to be used for measuring food temperatures:
Examples: Bi-metallic stem (range from 0°F to 220°F), thermocouple, and thermistor (digital)
Smoked fish held above what temperature causes the growth of which kind of bacteria
38°F causes growth of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.
Canned products must be rejected if there are
Dents at the seam, swelling, severe rust, leakage or no label. . (exception: slight dent on the body of the can)
All commercial modified atmosphere packaged foods
type of packaged food that must be used per manufacture specifications
Vacuum Packaging of any food product in a retail food establishment
Prohibited by law unless special authorization is obtained through the Department of Health
In order to prevent cross-contamination, raw foods in a refrigerator must be stored
below cooked foods
Food establishments which serve alcoholic beverages are required to display
the "Alcohol and Pregnancy Warning" sign.
There are three main hazards to our health in a food establishment:
physical, chemical and biological.
a chemical hazard.
Presence of harmful chemicals (pesticide, cleaning agents, prescription medicine etc.) in a food
The presence of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi) in food is what kind of hazard?
Foods that have been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria
have no change in appearance, taste or smell.
Under favorable conditions bacteria can double their population in what amount of time?
Bacteria can double their population every 20 to 30 minutes in what conditions?
The most rapid growth of bacteria (FATTOM) takes place in what phase
The log phase causes what of bacteria?
The six factors that affect the growth of bacteria are:
Food, Acidity (Low acidity), TDZ, Time, Oxygen, Moisture (FATTOM).
Hepatitis A and norovirus contaminate the food supply
through fecal (human) contaminated waters and food
Trichinella spiralis cooking requirements.
can be eliminated by cooking pork to 155°F for 15 seconds
one must always use pasteurized eggs only.
When preparing any egg recipe where eggs are not cooked or partially cooked,
Clostridium perfringens growth can be controlled by
rapid cooling, rapid re-heating and avoid preparing foods in advance
food-borne illness Staphylococcal food intoxication can be prevented by
good personal hygiene and avoiding bare hands contact with ready-to-eat foods.
Food workers sick with an illness that can be transmitted by contact with food or through food should be
prevented from working until fully recovered.
Ground meats such as hamburgers must be cooked to a minimum temperature of
158°F to eliminate E. coli 0157:H7
Ciguatera Intoxication occurs in what kind of environmental conditions
warm weather when toxic red algae in the water are eaten by small fish. The small fish are then eaten by certain predatory fish (barracuda, red snapper etc.,)
Scombroid poisoning occurs from
eating certain fish (e.g., tuna, mackerel, bonito, mahi mahi, blue fish, etc.) with high levels of histamines due to time and temperature abuse.
Hands must be washed thoroughly after
any activity in which the hands have become contaminated. For example, before starting work, after handling raw foods, coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, drinking, scratching, etc.
hands become contaminated
before starting work, after handling raw foods, coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, drinking, scratching.
The NYC Health Code requires that hand-washing sinks must be located
within 25 feet of each food preparation, food service and ware-washing area and in or adjacent to employee and patron bathrooms.
The hand wash sinks must be provided with
soap, hot and cold running water, disposable towels or a hand dryer and a "wash hands" sign.
The NYC Health Code requires that all food workers wear
proper hair restraints, clean aprons and outer garments, abstain from wearing jewelry and wearing make-up.
It is illegal to handle ready-to-eat foods
with bare hands. Workers must use gloves, tongs, deli paper, spatula or other clean and sanitary utensils. Foods that will be cooked (e.g. raw beef for stew, raw dough for bread, etc.) may be handled with clean bare hands.
To handle ready to eat foods workers must use
gloves, tongs, deli paper, spatula or other clean and sanitary utensils.
The three acceptable methods of thawing frozen foods are to
refrigerate them, place under cold running water or in a microwave oven with continuous cooking afterwards.
Some of the effective ways to rapidly cool foods are:
immersion in an ice-water bath with occasional stirring, use of 4 inches shallow cooling pans with a product depth of 1 to 2 inches, using a rapid-chill unit, and cutting solid foods into smaller pieces (6 lbs. or less).
Hot foods placed in a refrigerator for cooling must be covered only after they have completely cooled to
41°F or below
Previously cooked and refrigerated foods that will be served from a hot holding unit must be
rapidly reheated to 165°F using a stove or an oven.
When working with ready-to-eat-foods
Always use utensils such as clean and sanitary pair of gloves, tongs, spatula, deli paper, spoon, knife, etc.
To prevent contamination of food disposable gloves must be
Must be changed often to prevent contamination of food
Atmospheric Vacuum Breakers (AVB) must be installed
in any equipment that has a direct connection with potable water supply.
Types of equipment that have direct connections with potable water supplies
ice-machine, coffee machines, dishwashers, etc.
What requirements must water be met to sanatize using the hot-water method?
Immersing utensils in water at 170°F for 30 seconds or more
To prepare a 50 PPM chlorine based sanitizing solution
, add 1/2 ounce of bleach to 1 gallon of water.
To prepare a 100PPM chlorine based sanitizing solution
add one ounce of bleach to 1 gallon of water.
Bathrooms for patrons must be provided
when there are 20 seats or more in the dining area of a food establishment.
The three key strategies of Integrated Pest Management are:
Starve them, Build them out and Destroy them.
Insecticides and rodenticides can only be applied in a restaurant by a
Licensed Pest Control Officer.
NYC Health code requires that a pest control officer must inspect a food establishment
Inspection at least once a month
The seven principles of HACCP are:
hazard, ccp, set up limits, moniter, take action, verify, record keeping
A Critical Control Point (CCP)
is any point in the food flow where action must be taken to eliminate the hazard.
If potentially hazardous foods are left in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than two hours
Then the food must be discarded as it is no longer considered safe.
An excellent way to improve food safety, security and general work practice is to
Conduct a self-assessment of food operations on a regular basis.
The most common injuries among restaurant workers in a work place are:
slips, trips, falls, cuts, lacerations, burns, muscle strains, sprains and electrocution.
Foods that provide suitable conditions for
rapid growth of microorganisms.
Hot water sanitizing
This method of sanitizing
involves the use of hot water and a
three compartment sink.
Bacteria that prefer human food grow between what temperatures?
Between 41-140°F (Temperature Danger Zone)
The processes of dehydration, freezing and preserving in salt or sugar to remove moisture from foods.
Bacteria can be controlled by removing what?
What Water Activity value does not have enough moisture to support the active growth of bacteria?
.85 or less
The Flash method to pasteurize milk
milk is held at 161°F for fifteen seconds ("high temperature short time" method )
Examples of chemicals that kill bacteria:
carbolic acid, formaldehyde, iodine, chlorine and quaternary compounds
Salmonella enteritidis causes
Abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, and malaise
Staphylococcus aureus occurs in what type of foods
room temperature foods like Baked goods, custards, pastry
Ham & sliced meats with low water activity.
Staphylococcal gastroenteritis is found in
Healthy human beings (in nose, throat, hair, on infected cuts, bruises, abscesses and acne)
Shigellosis can be caused by
contamination from raw produce, moist prepared foods- tuna, macaroni, potato salads, etc
2 ways Shigellosis can be prevented
Avoiding bare hands contact with ready-to-eat foods & Rapidly cool foods to 41°F or below