NYC Food Protection Certificate Exam flashcards | Quizlet

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  • All food service establishments must have

    a current and valid permit issued by the NYC Health Department

    When do Health Inspectors have the right to inspect a food service or food processing establishment?

    as long as it is in operation

    During an inspection, inspectors must be given access to

    all areas of the food establishment

    Who is required to have a Food Protection Certificate.

    supervisors of all food service establishments

    Food is defined as

    any edible substance, ice, beverage, or ingredient intended for use and used or sold for human consumption.

    Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF) refers to?

    Foods which support rapid growth of microorganisms.

    Examples of Potentially Hazardous Foods

    Examples: raw and cooked meats, poultry, milk and milk products, fish, shellfish, tofu, cooked rice, pasta, beans, potatoes, cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes and melons, garlic in oil etc. (Exceptions: Air-cooled hard-boiled eggs with intact shell, beef jerky, cheese pizza, crispy bacon)

    Not Potentially Hazardous prepared Foods

    Air-cooled hard-boiled eggs with intact shell, beef jerky, cheese pizza, crispy bacon

    The Temperature Danger Zone

    41°F and 140°F.

    The three thermometers allowed to be used for measuring food temperatures:

    Examples: Bi-metallic stem (range from 0°F to 220°F), thermocouple, and thermistor (digital)

    Glass Thermometers

    Kind of thermometer which are prohibited by law in a food establishment.

    Meat inspected by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture must have what?

    must have a USDA inspection stamp.

    Raw shell eggs must be stored at a minimum temperature of


    Smoked fish must be held at

    38°F or below

    Smoked fish held above what temperature causes the growth of which kind of bacteria

    38°F causes growth of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.

    All refrigerated food must be held at or below


    Shellfish must be received with

    the shellfish tags

    After shellfish is used up

    tags must be kept on file for at least 90 days

    Milk and milk products must be pasteurized with sell-by dates of

    9 days

    Milk and milk products must be ultra-pasteurized with sell-by dates of

    45 days

    All fruits and vegetables served raw must be

    thoroughly washed before being served.

    Canned products must be rejected if there are

    Dents at the seam, swelling, severe rust, leakage or no label. . (exception: slight dent on the body of the can)

    Home canned foods

    are unacceptable types of canning

    All commercial modified atmosphere packaged foods

    type of packaged food that must be used per manufacture specifications

    Vacuum Packaging of any food product in a retail food establishment

    Prohibited by law unless special authorization is obtained through the Department of Health

    The acronym FIFO means

    First In First Out

    The first step in implementing FIFO is to

    date the products is the is the first step

    How far off the floor must all food items must be stored?

    6" or more

    In order to prevent cross-contamination, raw foods in a refrigerator must be stored

    below cooked foods

    Cold temperatures

    slow down the growth of microorganisms

    All cold foods must be held at

    41°F or below at all times (except smoked fish at 38°F)

    Dry storage areas

    Must be kept well lighted and ventilated

    Never store foods

    under waste water lines

    Qualities of food for storage must be

    kept covered and stored in vermin-proof containers

    Ice intended for human consumption

    cannot be used for storing cans, bottles or other food products

    When foods are stored directly in ice

    The water from that ice must be drained constantly.

    "First Aid Choking" poster

    must be displayed conspicuously in each designated eating area.

    Food establishments which serve alcoholic beverages are required to display

    the "Alcohol and Pregnancy Warning" sign.

    A "Wash Hands" sign

    must be displayed at all hand washing sinks.

    "No smoking" signs

    must be displayed throughout each facility.

    There are three main hazards to our health in a food establishment:

    physical, chemical and biological.

    A physical hazard in food

    The presence of a foreign object (glass fragments, pieces of metal, etc.)

    a chemical hazard.

    Presence of harmful chemicals (pesticide, cleaning agents, prescription medicine etc.) in a food

    The presence of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi) in food is what kind of hazard?


    Foods that have been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria

    have no change in appearance, taste or smell.

    Under favorable conditions bacteria can double their population in what amount of time?

    Bacteria can double their population every 20 to 30 minutes in what conditions?

    There are 4 phases of bacterial growth:

    Lag, Log, Stationary and Death.

    The most rapid growth of bacteria (FATTOM) takes place in what phase

    The log phase causes what of bacteria?

    The six factors that affect the growth of bacteria are:

    Food, Acidity (Low acidity), TDZ, Time, Oxygen, Moisture (FATTOM).

    Viruses cannot

    reproduce in food; they only use food as a means to get inside the human body.

    Hepatitis A and norovirus contaminate the food supply

    through fecal (human) contaminated waters and food

    Trichinella spiralis.

    The food-borne parasite typically found in under-cooked pork

    Trichinosis parasite

    is caused by a parasite known as Trichinella spiralis.

    Trichinella spiralis cooking requirements.

    can be eliminated by cooking pork to 155°F for 15 seconds

    Marine fish contain what?

    Anisakis simplex is a food-borne parasite found where?

    Salmonella enteritidis

    Mainly associated with raw poultry and raw shell eggs.

    one must always use pasteurized eggs only.

    When preparing any egg recipe where eggs are not cooked or partially cooked,

    Clostridium perfringens growth can be controlled by

    rapid cooling, rapid re-heating and avoid preparing foods in advance

    Staphylococcus aureus is carried by?

    bacterium that is commonly carried by healthy human beings.

    Staphylococcal food intoxication

    is caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    food-borne illness Staphylococcal food intoxication can be prevented by

    good personal hygiene and avoiding bare hands contact with ready-to-eat foods.

    Food workers sick with an illness that can be transmitted by contact with food or through food should be

    prevented from working until fully recovered.

    Ground meats such as hamburgers must be cooked to a minimum temperature of

    158°F to eliminate E. coli 0157:H7

    E. coli 0157:H7 is caused by

    ground meat not cooked over 158°F causes

    botulism is caused by

    Clostridium botulinum

    What virus is home-canned foods associated with?

    Clostridium botulinum bacterium

    Ciguatera Intoxication occurs in what kind of environmental conditions

    warm weather when toxic red algae in the water are eaten by small fish. The small fish are then eaten by certain predatory fish (barracuda, red snapper etc.,)

    Humans become sick from predatory fish with accumulated toxins from

    red algae

    Scombroid poisoning occurs from

    eating certain fish (e.g., tuna, mackerel, bonito, mahi mahi, blue fish, etc.) with high levels of histamines due to time and temperature abuse.

    Hands must be washed thoroughly after

    any activity in which the hands have become contaminated. For example, before starting work, after handling raw foods, coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, drinking, scratching, etc.

    hands become contaminated

    before starting work, after handling raw foods, coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, drinking, scratching.

    The NYC Health Code requires that hand-washing sinks must be located

    within 25 feet of each food preparation, food service and ware-washing area and in or adjacent to employee and patron bathrooms.

    The hand wash sinks must be provided with

    soap, hot and cold running water, disposable towels or a hand dryer and a "wash hands" sign.

    The NYC Health Code requires that all food workers wear

    proper hair restraints, clean aprons and outer garments, abstain from wearing jewelry and wearing make-up.

    It is illegal to handle ready-to-eat foods

    with bare hands. Workers must use gloves, tongs, deli paper, spatula or other clean and sanitary utensils. Foods that will be cooked (e.g. raw beef for stew, raw dough for bread, etc.) may be handled with clean bare hands.

    To handle ready to eat foods workers must use

    gloves, tongs, deli paper, spatula or other clean and sanitary utensils.

    Clean bare hands con only touch food

    that will be cooked

    The three acceptable methods of thawing frozen foods are to

    refrigerate them, place under cold running water or in a microwave oven with continuous cooking afterwards.

    cross contamination

    is when bacteria from a raw food get into a cooked or ready-to-eat food

    The correct cooking temperature for poultry, stuffed meat and stuffing is


    Ground meat and foods containing ground meat must be cooked to an internal temperature of


    To prevent illness, pork must be cooked to an internal temperature of


    Eggs, fish, shellfish, lamb, and other meats must be cooked to a minimum temperature of


    All hot foods stored on a hot-holding unit must be held at

    140°F or higher

    Some of the effective ways to rapidly cool foods are:

    immersion in an ice-water bath with occasional stirring, use of 4 inches shallow cooling pans with a product depth of 1 to 2 inches, using a rapid-chill unit, and cutting solid foods into smaller pieces (6 lbs. or less).

    Hot foods placed in a refrigerator for cooling must be covered only after they have completely cooled to

    41°F or below

    Previously cooked and refrigerated foods that will be served from a hot holding unit must be

    rapidly reheated to 165°F using a stove or an oven.

    Never use a hot-holding unit

    to reheat foods.

    Bare hands may never be used

    when working with ready-to-eat foods.

    When working with ready-to-eat-foods

    Always use utensils such as clean and sanitary pair of gloves, tongs, spatula, deli paper, spoon, knife, etc.

    To prevent contamination of food disposable gloves must be

    Must be changed often to prevent contamination of food

    culinary (food related) and pot/dish washing sinks must be fitted with


    Atmospheric Vacuum Breakers (AVB) must be installed

    in any equipment that has a direct connection with potable water supply.

    Types of equipment that have direct connections with potable water supplies

    ice-machine, coffee machines, dishwashers, etc.

    Cross-connection can be prevented by installing what?

    installing a hose-bib vacuum breaker.

    All gas-fired hot water heaters must be installed by

    a licensed plumber

    All gas-fired hot water heaters must be monitored

    for back draft.

    NYC laws make it illegal to dump grease

    in any sink that does not have a proper grease interceptor.

    The proper sequence for the manual dish washing operations is

    Wash, Rinse, Sanitize and Air-dry.

    Between each use, cutting boards must be

    Washed, Rinsed and Sanitized.

    What requirements must water be met to sanatize using the hot-water method?

    Immersing utensils in water at 170°F for 30 seconds or more

    To prepare a 50 PPM chlorine based sanitizing solution

    , add 1/2 ounce of bleach to 1 gallon of water.

    To prepare a 100PPM chlorine based sanitizing solution

    add one ounce of bleach to 1 gallon of water.

    50 PPM sanitizing solution

    is used for immersion/soaking of utensils for at least 1 minute.

    typically used for wiping, spraying or pouring

    100 PPM Sanitizing solution

    Wiping cloths must be stored

    in a sanitizing solution with strength of 50 PPM.

    During chemical sanitization, the chemical solution

    must be checked with a test kit

    Bathrooms for patrons must be provided

    when there are 20 seats or more in the dining area of a food establishment.

    The three key strategies of Integrated Pest Management are:

    Starve them, Build them out and Destroy them.

    When food is unavailable to mice

    Mice will move out.

    Rats are known to enter buildings

    through openings that are as small as the size of a quarter

    Presence of fresh rat droppings in a food establishment

    is a critical violation.

    Insecticides and rodenticides can only be applied in a restaurant by a

    Licensed Pest Control Officer.

    NYC Health code requires that a pest control officer must inspect a food establishment

    Inspection at least once a month

    HACCP is an acronym that stands for

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point

    The seven principles of HACCP are:

    hazard, ccp, set up limits, moniter, take action, verify, record keeping


    A food safety system which is mainly concerned with the control of harmful microorganisms.

    A Critical Control Point (CCP)

    is any point in the food flow where action must be taken to eliminate the hazard.

    If potentially hazardous foods are left in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than two hours

    Then the food must be discarded as it is no longer considered safe.

    Whenever making cold salads such as tuna

    It is recommended that ingredients are pre-chilled.

    Artificial trans fat increases

    LDL - the bad cholesterol, leading to heart disease.

    Artificial trans fat are banned

    from all Restaurant foods.

    An excellent way to improve food safety, security and general work practice is to

    Conduct a self-assessment of food operations on a regular basis.

    The most common injuries among restaurant workers in a work place are:

    slips, trips, falls, cuts, lacerations, burns, muscle strains, sprains and electrocution.

    To avoid slips, trips and falls,

    slip resistant shoes must be worn by food workers.

    Most harmful microorganisms reproduce rapidly.

    Within The Temperature Danger Zone

    Potentially Hazardous
    Foods (PHF)

    Foods that provide suitable conditions for
    rapid growth of microorganisms.

    165° F

    Poultry, stuffed meats, stuffing

    158° F

    Ground meats

    155° F

    Pork and Pork Products

    145° F

    Shell eggs, all meats but pork, poultry & ground meats

    PHF cooling time first half

    2 hours when cooling from 140°F
    to 70°F

    PHF cooling time second half

    and more than 4 hours when
    cooling from 70°F to 41°F or below

    Hot water sanitizing

    This method of sanitizing
    involves the use of hot water and a
    three compartment sink.

    170°F (not food)

    Temperature for 30 seconds to sanitize

    6 lbs.

    Reduced size to cool Meat roasts, Poultry and Fish

    4 inches.

    Depth of pan required to cool thick foods
    like chili and refried beans

    50 PPM

    The strength of sanitizing solution for a wiping cloth

    31°F for 15 hours

    Required freezing criteria for any fish to be consumed raw

    Sulfites can be used to

    maintain the color and freshness of cut fruits and vegetables

    Under favorable conditions bacteria can double their population

    every 20 to 30 minutes


    growth of bacteria possible

    6 conditions for the growth of bacteria

    food, acidity, temperature, time, oxygen, moisture

    Food types bacteria like

    high protein foods of animal origin

    plant products that are heat treated

    Bacteria prefer what kind of acidity?

    Bacteria generally prefer neutral foods.

    Bacteria do not do well in foods that are

    food that is too acidic or too alkaline

    Why is vinegar used as a preservative

    to prevent growth of Bacteria

    What pH balance is considered too acidic for food to grow?

    Any food with a pH value of 4.6 or less

    Bacteria prefer what kind of temperature?

    warm temperatures

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