what is the first HACCP principle?
Conduct a hazard analysis to identify the hazards across the process and specify control measures
What is the 2nd HACCP principle?
Determine critical control points CCPs to pinpoint which of the steps where hazards were identified are critical to food safety.
What is the 3rd HACCP principle?
Establish critical limits, target levels and tolerances for each CCP
What is the 4th HACCP principle?
Establich a monitoring system for each CCP, through scheduled testing or observations.
What is the 5th HACCP principle?
Establish corrective actions to be taken when a CCP is out of control, that is, when a critical limit is breached
What is the 6th HACCP principle?
Establish verification procedures, which include appropriate validation, together w a review to confirm that the HACCP program is working effectively.
What is the 7th HACCP principle?
Establish documentation and record keeping for all procedures relevant to these principles and their application.
What are critical limits?
The values of monitored actions at CCPs that separate the acceptable from the unacceptable. Critical limits much be measurable.
What is the primary purpose of any inspection program?
To protect the public's health by requiring establishments to provide food that is safe, unadulterated and honestly presented.
What is the difference between a priority item and a core item on a safety inspection?
Core items don't have a direct impact on food safety.
What is the primary role of the CDC?
- the prevention and surveillance of foodborne disease outbreaks
Who publishes the food code and how often is it published?
The FDA issues the Food Code every 4 years, with a supplement being published every 2 years.
What is the focus of a HACCP plan?
- it focuses on the control of hazards throughout the food flow, rather than sanitation alone.
What is a foodborne disease outbreak?
An occurence of two or more cases of the same illness resulting from the consumption of the same food.
What is biological contamination
The contamination of food by microorganisms. Examples include bacteria, parasite, viruses and fungi.
What are spores?
A resistant resting phase of bacteria, protecting them against adverse conditions such as high temperatures.
What is the temperature danger zone?
41 - 135 degrees Fahrenheit (the temperature at which most food-borne microorganisms rapidly grow.
What are the 6 variables that affect the growth of bacteria?
Food (high in protein), Acidity (neutral pH, from 4.6-7), Time (4 hours), temperature (41-135), Oxygen, Moisture (water activity of .95-.99)
What are viruses, and give 2 examples:
They are submicroscopic parasites that are smaller than bacteria. Examples are norovirus, hepatitis A
What are parasites and give 3 examples
They are plants or animals that live on or in another plant or animal host to survive.
Ciguatera toxin comes from which fish from which regions
Snapper,grouper and mackerel (predatory reef fish) in South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean
Scombrotoxic fish poisoning is caused by what in which fish?
Caused by toxins that accumulate in the body of scombrid (tuna like) fish during storage, such as tuna, mackerel, sardines herring, anchovies and salmon.
Seafood certification tags are required on all shellfish and must be kept on file for how long?
What is chemical contamination?
The presence of unwanted chemical components in food or the food environment.
What metals should never be used for food storage or preparation?
Copper, aluminum or galvanized metal
What is physical contamination and give some examples
Physical contamination occurs when any foreign object becomes mixed with food and presents a hazard or nuisance to those consuming it Examples are dirt, fingernails, bandages, paper, plastic, dead insects
What is a food allergy?
The body's immunie system responding to a food that it mistankenly believes is harmful.
A serious allergic reaction that is repid in onset and life-threatening is called
List the 8 major allergens that account for 90% of all food allergies
Wheat, soy, milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, tree nuts and peanuts
High risk populations for food borne illness includes
- pregnant women, children, old people, those with compromised immune systems
Does the Food Code prohibit bare-handed contact in food service premises? T or F
True.Approval to touch RTE food with bare hands must be obtained by the proper regulatory authority
In what range of the temperature danger zone to bacteria multiply the fastest?
from 70 - 125 degrees F.
What are the four ways to thaw frozen food?
In a refrigerator, submergence method (cold running water at 70 degrees or below), during the cooking process, and with a microwave (but only if the food will be immediately cooked)
What foods must be cooked to 145 Degrees F?
Cook to order eggs, beef steaks, fish, pork, veal, lamb and tenderloin, game steaks
What foods must be cooked to 155 Degrees F?
Eggs held for service, ground meats, beef and pork injected w tenderizers
What foods must be cooked to 165 Degrees F?
Poultry, stuffing made w TCS foods, stuffed fish, meat, poultry and pasta, leftovers, reheated foods (non continuous cooked foods)
What is cleaning?
The process of removing soil, food residues, dirt, grease. The chemical used to do this is called detergent.
When sanitizing with heat, you need to. . .
Submerge the item for at least 30 seconds in water that is at least 171 degrees F
What are the minimum temperatures and concentrations for iodine and quat sanitizers?
Iodine - 68 Degrees F - 12.5 - 25 ppm
Quats - 75 Degrees F - 200 ppm
What is MSDS?
Material Safety Data Sheet - created by the producers and details the hazards of specific chemicals and their direction for use.