Sanitation Exam NEHA flashcards | Quizlet

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  • What does HACCP stand for?

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point

    what is the first HACCP principle?

    Conduct a hazard analysis to identify the hazards across the process and specify control measures

    What is the 2nd HACCP principle?

    Determine critical control points CCPs to pinpoint which of the steps where hazards were identified are critical to food safety.

    What is the 3rd HACCP principle?

    Establish critical limits, target levels and tolerances for each CCP

    What is the 4th HACCP principle?

    Establich a monitoring system for each CCP, through scheduled testing or observations.

    What is the 5th HACCP principle?

    Establish corrective actions to be taken when a CCP is out of control, that is, when a critical limit is breached

    What is the 6th HACCP principle?

    Establish verification procedures, which include appropriate validation, together w a review to confirm that the HACCP program is working effectively.

    What is the 7th HACCP principle?

    Establish documentation and record keeping for all procedures relevant to these principles and their application.

    What are critical limits?

    The values of monitored actions at CCPs that separate the acceptable from the unacceptable. Critical limits much be measurable.

    What is the primary purpose of any inspection program?

    To protect the public's health by requiring establishments to provide food that is safe, unadulterated and honestly presented.

    What is the difference between a priority item and a core item on a safety inspection?

    Core items don't have a direct impact on food safety.

    What is the primary role of the CDC?

    - the prevention and surveillance of foodborne disease outbreaks

    Who publishes the food code and how often is it published?

    The FDA issues the Food Code every 4 years, with a supplement being published every 2 years.

    What is the focus of a HACCP plan?

    - it focuses on the control of hazards throughout the food flow, rather than sanitation alone.

    What is a foodborne disease outbreak?

    An occurence of two or more cases of the same illness resulting from the consumption of the same food.

    What are the four stages of training?

    Motivate, teach, supervise, test

    What is biological contamination

    The contamination of food by microorganisms. Examples include bacteria, parasite, viruses and fungi.

    What are the 3 types of contamination?

    Physical, chemical and biological.

    Bacteria that cause illness are known as. . .


    What are spores?

    A resistant resting phase of bacteria, protecting them against adverse conditions such as high temperatures.

    What is the temperature danger zone?

    41 - 135 degrees Fahrenheit (the temperature at which most food-borne microorganisms rapidly grow.

    When conditions are ideal and bacteria grow and multiply, this is called. . .

    the vegetative state

    What are the 6 variables that affect the growth of bacteria?

    Food (high in protein), Acidity (neutral pH, from 4.6-7), Time (4 hours), temperature (41-135), Oxygen, Moisture (water activity of .95-.99)

    Name 3 spore forming bacteria:

    Clostridium Botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfingens

    What are viruses, and give 2 examples:

    They are submicroscopic parasites that are smaller than bacteria. Examples are norovirus, hepatitis A

    What are parasites and give 3 examples

    They are plants or animals that live on or in another plant or animal host to survive.

    Mold grows especially well in what conditions?

    Low water activity and high acidity.

    Moldy hard cheese can be used if cut. ..

    One inch from where the mold occurs.

    Ciguatera toxin comes from which fish from which regions

    Snapper,grouper and mackerel (predatory reef fish) in South Florida, Bahamas and Caribbean

    Scombrotoxic fish poisoning is caused by what in which fish?

    Caused by toxins that accumulate in the body of scombrid (tuna like) fish during storage, such as tuna, mackerel, sardines herring, anchovies and salmon.

    Seafood certification tags are required on all shellfish and must be kept on file for how long?

    90 days.

    What is chemical contamination?

    The presence of unwanted chemical components in food or the food environment.

    What metals should never be used for food storage or preparation?

    Copper, aluminum or galvanized metal

    What is physical contamination and give some examples

    Physical contamination occurs when any foreign object becomes mixed with food and presents a hazard or nuisance to those consuming it Examples are dirt, fingernails, bandages, paper, plastic, dead insects

    When is food most susceptible to physical contamination?

    When it is being prepared for consumption.

    What is a food allergy?

    The body's immunie system responding to a food that it mistankenly believes is harmful.

    A serious allergic reaction that is repid in onset and life-threatening is called

    anaphylactic reaction.

    List the 8 major allergens that account for 90% of all food allergies

    Wheat, soy, milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, tree nuts and peanuts

    Name the 2 bacteria that can be reduced by proper hand washing:

    E-coli and Shigella spp.

    High risk populations for food borne illness includes

    - pregnant women, children, old people, those with compromised immune systems

    What is the main purpose of protective clothing?

    To protect food from contamination.

    Does the Food Code prohibit bare-handed contact in food service premises? T or F

    True.Approval to touch RTE food with bare hands must be obtained by the proper regulatory authority

    In what range of the temperature danger zone to bacteria multiply the fastest?

    from 70 - 125 degrees F.

    Name the three methods of cross contamination:

    Direct, Indirect, Drip

    Raw eggs and shellfish must be delivered and kept at or below:

    45 degrees F.

    The maximum shelf life for any TCS food or RTE food is

    7 days

    Poultry should be stored at what temperature?

    41 degrees F or lower.

    Fresh fish should be stored at what temperature?

    Between 32 - 41 Degrees F.

    ROP foods should be stored at what temperature?

    41 degrees F or lower.

    What are the four ways to thaw frozen food?

    In a refrigerator, submergence method (cold running water at 70 degrees or below), during the cooking process, and with a microwave (but only if the food will be immediately cooked)

    Microwaved foods must reach a temperature of

    165 degrees F.

    What foods must be cooked to 145 Degrees F?

    Cook to order eggs, beef steaks, fish, pork, veal, lamb and tenderloin, game steaks

    What foods must be cooked to 135 Degrees F?

    Fruits and Veg cooked for hot holding, RTE foods

    What foods must be cooked to 155 Degrees F?

    Eggs held for service, ground meats, beef and pork injected w tenderizers

    What foods must be cooked to 165 Degrees F?

    Poultry, stuffing made w TCS foods, stuffed fish, meat, poultry and pasta, leftovers, reheated foods (non continuous cooked foods)

    What is cross connection?

    The mixing of drinking and contaminated water in plumbing lines.

    What is cleaning?

    The process of removing soil, food residues, dirt, grease. The chemical used to do this is called detergent.

    What is sanitizing?

    To use chemicals or heat to reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level

    When sanitizing with heat, you need to. . .

    Submerge the item for at least 30 seconds in water that is at least 171 degrees F

    HIgh temperature dishwashing machines have a temperature of at least. .

    180 Degrees F.

    What are the minimum temperatures and concentrations for iodine and quat sanitizers?

    Iodine - 68 Degrees F - 12.5 - 25 ppm
    Quats - 75 Degrees F - 200 ppm

    HCS stands for

    Hazard Communication Standard (Hazcom)

    What is MSDS?

    Material Safety Data Sheet - created by the producers and details the hazards of specific chemicals and their direction for use.

    A written cleaning schedule is called

    SSOP - Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure

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