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191 Matching questions

  1. what does an egg white foam look like?
  2. best ratio of baking powder____, baking soda ____ and salt per cup of flour for cakes.
  3. what are eggs used for in food prep?
  4. what is the ratio of liquid to flour in popovers?
  5. what happens if dough is over fermented?
  6. 1 cup of flour can be leavened with ____ baking soda and ____ acid. ____ of baking powder can substitue.
  7. evaporated whole milk increases ___x and whipping cream increases ___x.
  8. what differentiates scones and biscuits?
  9. single vs double acting baking powder-
  10. what commercial agent encourages gluten development?
  11. how do salt, sugar and temperature affect yeast?
  12. how to prepare legumes-
    what are the exceptions?
  13. How would one know if the quail egg is of optimum quality?
  14. why does dough need to be punched down after the first rising?
  15. what is baking powder?
  16. how does yeast grow?
  17. what is a bein marie? how is it used for custard and how do you know when custard is done?
  18. what 4 things can be added to modify flour?
  19. what is tofu?
  20. what temperature does milk form a stable dairy foam? what are the other factors of stability
  21. glutenin adds _______ and gliadin adds ____. what is the only type of flour with gluten?
  22. what is the straight dough method for mixing? sponge method? batter method? rapid mix?
  23. Rutabagas belong to what family?
  24. what are hydrocolloid food additives?
  25. how do you prevent coagulation of milk by acid?
  26. how can you minimize curdling of eggs upon heating?
  27. how does humidity affect storage of legumes? how much do legumes increase in volume when cooked?
  28. what does it mean if a pan is primed or seasoned?
  29. the protein in milks is a ______ protein.
  30. ultra pasteurization vs UHT pasteurization-
  31. how are eggs graded via candling?
  32. what is beading and how does it occur? what causes wheeping?
  33. how do salt and fats affect DOUGH?
  34. how should egg white foams be mixed into a better?
  35. True/False: To peel a plantain, you hold onto the stem and peel down the sides, like you would a banana.
  36. egg white foams are best cooked in what stage?
  37. what are the gluten forming proteins?
  38. The results from the research study in the jerusalem artichoke presentation found that:
  39. how do yeast and gluten interact?
  40. how are fiddlehead ferns commonly prepared?
  41. what is the least common way to eat daikon?
  42. how did pound cake get its name?
  43. why are bagels boiled before baking?
  44. best way to melt cheese-
  45. what are haugh units?
  46. what is oven spring? what is crumb?
  47. why do eggs sometimes crack while boiling?
  48. what happens when not enough acid is added to baking soda?
  49. why is the oven initially hotter for the first 30 minutes?
  50. what are the physical leavening agents? chemical?
  51. what affects the flavor of milk?
  52. fresh cheese:
    soft cheese:
    semi hard:
    hard:
    very hard:
  53. how many grams of soy are required to get the heart health benefits?
  54. when baking at high altitude liquid should be _______ and temperature should be _______.
  55. what does it mean if the gluten window tears?
  56. Plaintains are a good source of
  57. the cream of tartar in angel food serves what purposes?
  58. an average daikon is what size?
  59. how does sugar affect egg prep? salt?
  60. what products form from steam leavening?
  61. too much salt in dough causes-
    not enough salt causes-
  62. direct vs indirect acid coagulation of cheese:
  63. why is fat free cheese tougher when melted?
  64. creams are ____-_____% fat-
  65. what months is the fiddlehead fern available?
  66. what does heat do to milk?
  67. foam cake vs shortened cake-
  68. what are the enzymes at work when yeast is added to flours?
  69. tempeh vs miso-
  70. short soak-
    long soak-
  71. at high altitudes ______ leavening should be used to avoid ______
  72. what months is rhubarb most plentiful?
  73. about ____ milk produced in US is sold as______.
  74. Where did Pomegranates originate from?
  75. grades of milk are based on-
  76. what occurs during the first rising of dough? 2nd rising? final rising?
  77. what is compressed yeast? what is dry yeast? what is instant?
  78. What family does celeriac belong to?
  79. which type of flour had the largest gluten ball? smallest? why?
  80. to get a light and airy cake use the _________ method.
  81. cheeses are usually classified by:
  82. what type of utensil should be used for egg foams?
  83. yolk is made of-
  84. what is the cuticle or bloom of an egg? what is the chalaza?
  85. Pomegranates are a rich source of what?
  86. what inhibits softening of beans? how to fix it?
    how do hard and soft water affect beans and how to fix it?
  87. how does pasteurization work? what is tested to see if it was successful?
  88. pound cakes have less sugar than high ratio cakes so high ratio cakes require-
  89. how does cooling affect whipping dairy? what happens due to warming?
  90. Raab was brought to the US by
  91. two most important factors when preparing quick breads is-
  92. what enzyme is often added to milk to produce cheese and ice cream?
  93. why are eggs added last when making cake?
  94. Brocolli Raab is a good source of
  95. what are the advantages/disadvantages of hot water start for hard boiling eggs? what are the advantages/disadvantages of cold start?
  96. what is milk homogenization for?
  97. when should you modify a recipe?
  98. when should acid be added to eggs when whipping? when should sugar be added?
  99. how is air as a leavener influenced?
  100. what part of the globe artichoke is not eaten?
  101. how does fat affect foams? how does temp of eggs affect foams? how does age affect foams?
  102. how does sugar affect whipping? how does acid affect whipping?
  103. other names for creaming cake method-
    other names for 2 step sake method-
  104. buiscuits, scones, and unleavened breads are made from-
  105. how does whipping cause milk products to expand?
  106. how to avoid curdling from salts and polyphenolic comppounds-
  107. homogenization makes the milk more susceptible to _______.
  108. Quails are a part of this family:
  109. Daikon is usually found in _____ dishes.
  110. an egg has about ____ calories, ____ g of fat, ____ g of protein, and ____ mg of cholesterol.
  111. what does baking soda need to react?
  112. what has research shown about fiddlehead ferns?
  113. how many strokes should be used when using the muffin method?
  114. how does sugar affect egg foams?
  115. Broccoflower is also known as?
  116. germ spot-
    vitelline layer-
  117. True/False: Rutabagas are poisonous if eaten raw.
  118. what is the based way to make hard boiled eggs? what happens if cooked too long?
  119. what are the functions of fat in a recipe?
  120. Broccoflower is considered a __________ vegetable.
  121. what is curdling of milk? what causes it?
  122. why do some recipes call for baking soda and baking powder?
  123. what are the functions of salt in a recipe?
  124. what is proofing?
  125. what causes skin formation on milk? how is it avoided?
  126. All of the following are good characteristics to look for in fresh broccoli raab
  127. what is the difference between rennin coagulated curdles of milk and acid coagulated curdles?
  128. what are the necessary ingredients for bread?
  129. to get a velvety, melt in mouth cake texture use the ______ method.
  130. why does overmixing causes tunnels?
  131. what enzymes cause milk to curdle?
  132. egg whites cook at a _______ temp than egg yolks.
  133. Quail eggs are considered a super food because:
  134. what are the steps of cheese ripening?
  135. how does homogenization alter milk?
  136. how to make best muffins-
  137. what do you NOT when when choosing celeriac?
  138. what happens to the air cell of an egg as it ages?
  139. milk allergy vs milk intolerance-
  140. why do legumes cause flatulence? how to prevent?
  141. the north has _____ protein content flour than the south because______.
  142. what can replace eggs in a recipe for vegans?
  143. All of the following are true about Jerusalem artichokes
  144. what are the benefits of plant proteins?
  145. what is gluten?
  146. what component of rhubarb is poisonous?
  147. starch strengthens doughs via ________.
  148. why are butter and shortening better than oils for cakes?
  149. what composes milk?
  150. Rutabagas can be purchased in when?
  151. stream-
    patent flour-
    straight flour-
  152. what happens when water is added to a foam?
  153. sponge cake vs chiffon cake-
  154. how does acid affect egg prep? starch?
  155. why is shortening already aerated?
  156. what is self rising flour?
  157. what is another name for egg white? what are the 4 layers? what happens to egg white as it ages?
  158. why is sweetened condensed milk dark? what is evaporated milk? what is sweetened condensed milk?
  159. 2 rules for preparing foods with cheese-
  160. how can the curd be treated to remove whey during cheese making?
  161. why does nonfat milk have a blue hue?
  162. Which of the following methods are used to remove pomegranate seeds?
  163. soft vs hard wheat-
  164. what is used to prevent staling in bread? what is used to retard mold?
  165. what is optional in yeast breads?
  166. whipped evaporated milk vs whipped NFDM-
  167. what happens when rye,corn, barley, oat, whole wheat etc. replace white wheat flours?
  168. Nutritional yeast is a good source of
  169. what are the functions of sugar in a recipe?
  170. what is the primary purpose of flour? what is the secondary purpose of flour?
  171. what is rope?
  172. homogenized milk _______ more easily so it makes puddings, white sauces etc. more ______.
  173. what are the possible pitfalls of the creaming cake method?
  174. why is vinegar added to water when hard boiling eggs?
  175. how are whey isolates used in the food industry?
  176. how does do acid and salt affect egg foams?
  177. what are some disadvantages of plant proteins?
  178. what is the baseline moisture for cakes? how is it increased? which is better for moisture oil or butter?
  179. The main form of carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichokes is:
  180. legumes are-
  181. how do whole eggs. whites and yolks affect dough?
  182. flour can differ in the same strain due to-
  183. What nutrients is broccoflower known for being a good source of?
  184. why is mozzarella cheese used on pizza?
  185. Celeriac is most commonly used as a low-calorie substitute for which other vegetable?
  186. When storing nutritional yeast, it is important to remember
  187. what are the functions of eggs in a recipe?
  188. fresh vs old eggs-
  189. how does water affect egg whites?
  190. what happens if a cake is over leavened?
  191. why is risen dough scored?
  1. a -it removes carotenoids and fats that give it a yellow color
  2. b potatoes
  3. c Rough texture
  4. d yeast, salt, bread flour and warm water
  5. e uses about a pound of each ingredient
  6. f moisture content, processing method and milk source
  7. g has baking powder and salt in it
  8. h intolerance: lack of lactase enzyme so it can't be digested
    allergy: immune response to milk that most kids grow out of
  9. i -evaporation, increased casein, fat, mineral salt concentration
    -lid, continiual stirring, floating butter, whip cream
  10. j -all into bowl and mixed at once
    -yeast/water in flour fermented til spongy
    -no kneading so bread has course texture
    -machine
  11. k creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients
  12. l at a low temp for a short period of time
  13. m -acids and calcium so add them after they are tender
    -hard water increases cooking time so add 1/8 tsp baking soda when soaking
    -soft water may soften beans too much
  14. n 25 g
  15. o the pores of the pan are sealed with a layer of heated on oil
  16. p fast heating causes pressure build up and can be avoided by letting them warm to room temp first
  17. q -air and steam
    -bio and chemical that produce CO2
  18. r to create a moist surface that doesn't brown easily and is less crunchy and causes starch to gelatinize causing a shiny, smooth crust
  19. s -soft, white, mild (cottage, cream, ricotta etc)
    -brie camambert
    -muenster, gouda, gorgonzola
    -cheddar, swiss
    -parmesan and romano
  20. t prevents separation of water and fat by decreasing fat globule size to increase viscosity and creaminess
  21. u -it increases coagulation temp so more heat is requires and it becomes more tender
    -lowers coagulation temp so it should be added before heating
  22. v -fats/mono and di glycerides
    -sodium or calcium propionate
  23. w foam: higher ration of eggs to flour and doesn't always have fat
    shortened: always contains fat
  24. x 18-36
  25. y -bulkiness (fill up too quickly)
    -may not meet certain vitamin needs (Ca, B12, D, Fe, Zn)
    -Fiber, phytates and oxalates can sequester nutrients
    -abdominal bloating and gas
  26. z 2 lbs and 10 inches long
  27. aa technique used with yeast bread to increase volume through continued fermentation
  28. ab Romanesco Broccoli
    Green cauliflower
  29. ac Iran and India
  30. ad sticky interior from bacteria that occurs in the summer in bread
  31. ae gelatinization (it also adds texture)
  32. af causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it
  33. ag cheese made from soy milk
  34. ah pepsin, proteases from plants, frui, rennins from calf stomach (rennets used to make cheese/ice cream)
  35. ai -cutting, heating, salting, knitting (melted), pressing
  36. aj -emulsification
    -thickening
    -leavening
    -binding
    -interfering
    -color/flavor
    -clarification
  37. ak b. They are related to sunflowers
    c. The later in the season they are harvested, the sweeter the taste
    d. Jerusalem artichokes are a good source of iron
  38. al half
    fluid milk and cream
  39. am vitamins A and D
  40. an -simmer 15-20 minutes
    -green ring forms from iron in yolk and sulfur from whites
  41. ao loses moisture and CO2 so it increases in size
  42. ap higher
    southern flour is in more moderate climates so there is less gluten
  43. aq they give larger volume, smaller crumb and give more flavor
    (never use margarine)
  44. ar -high humidity decreases storage time and flavor
    -2-3x (1lb yields 4-7 cups)
  45. as Phasianidae
  46. at -eats the carbs around it creating CO2 and ethanol
    -budding
  47. au a. To store in a cool, dry place
    b. To store in an airtight package
    c. Nutritional value may deteriorate after a year
  48. av -tiny syrup droplets that form from overcooking so it is avoided with higher heat
    -undercooking, underbeating, or hot filling
  49. aw a few
  50. ax -1/4 tsp and 1/2 cup
    - 1-1 1/4 tsp
  51. ay -moisten
    -stabilizing
    -flavor
    -color
    -emulsification
    -leavening
  52. az -AA or KBr (carcinogen): to increase strength/elasticity
    -salt: increases gluten strength and flavor
    -shortening: limits gluten
    -sugar: feeds yeast, limits gluten and postpones coagulation
  53. ba -glycolysis, lipolysis, proteolysis
  54. bb -interferes with coagulation so even a spot of yolk could interfere
    -eggs beat faster at room temp (unlike cream)
    -older whip easier and create more volume but fresh are more stable
  55. bc creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable
  56. bd they are not carcinogenic
  57. be -strength, structure, flavor and crumb
    -amylase causes sweetness, color and texture
  58. bf -lumpy batter
    -no overmixing
  59. bg 45°F
    more fat = more stable
    older (at least 1 day old) = more stable
    sugar added toward end (esp powdered) = more stable
  60. bh -indigestible carbs fermented by colonic bacteria cause gas
    -soak several times/discard water, rinse well with fresh water, use beano
  61. bi to break hard shell and to harden egg white if it cracks
  62. bj fat/eggs
  63. bk eggs
  64. bl to contribute to the oven spring (initial rising of the bread)
  65. bm Vitamin A
  66. bn cool season vegetable
  67. bo strengthens foam, increases tenderness and whitens color
  68. bp molecules that have extra hydroxyl groups so they are hydrophilic and provide stability for frozen/thawed foods
  69. bq June
  70. br -coagulation or precipitation of milk proteins
    -heat, acid, polyphenolic compounds, salts and enzymes
  71. bs the bacterial count of the milk
  72. bt -increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form
  73. bu it causes increased gluten formation and then chemical leaveners have difficulty rising
  74. bv vitamin C and Potassium
  75. bw False
  76. bx increased, increased
  77. by younger eggs are seen as a shadow because the chalaza are intact but older eggs are up agianst the shell and have a larger air cell
  78. bz parsley
  79. ca -fermentation, dough doubles in size
    -punching down to redistribute ingredients (not all recipes)
    -should have rounded top, occurs in baking pan to adequately aerate, should always be covered
  80. cb increased proteins and decreased fats
    processed cheese has emulsifying salts that allow it to melt better and won't separate as easily
  81. cc 75
    5 g fat
    5 g protein
    215 mg
  82. cd inulin
  83. ce metal NEVER plastic because it holds onto fat
    -don't use blender or food processor
  84. cf -invertase and maltase from yeast break starches into simple sugars
    -alpha amylase in FLOUR breaks down simple sugars
  85. cg kills the bacteria so there is a longer shelf life vs. very high temp, aseptically sealed so no refrigeration necessary for up to 3 months
  86. ch baking soda with acid and salt so it can react with hot and cold water
  87. ci Antioxidants
  88. cj whipping stretches the proteins into thin layers that traps bubbles of fat and liquid
  89. ck acid creates bubbles faster and salt addes flavor but can dry it out
  90. cl Italian immigrants
  91. cm all year round
  92. cn baking powder is reliable but baking soda can neutralize extra acidity (which could cause cake to fall)
  93. co consistency and temperature
  94. cp bright green color, firm leaves, no yellowing, thin stalks
  95. cq sort and rinse
    soak (except lentils and split peas)
  96. cr april through june
  97. cs sautéing them
  98. ct -it kills the enzymes that cause rancidity by converty lactose to lactic acid
    -alkaline phosphatase is checked
  99. cu soft: less protein more starch
    hard: more protein, better for yeast breads
  100. cv Protein and B Vitamins
  101. cw asian
  102. cx dough
  103. cy -bein marie
    -low temp oven
    -short heating time
    -tempering
  104. cz both are foam cakes but sponge cake only has egg yolks and chiffon has yolks and an oil
  105. da sodium bicarb forms which has a soapy taste and yellow color
  106. db tempeh: cooked soybeans inoculated with mold spores to give meaty texture and smoky, nutty flavor
    miso: fermented soybean paste (uses fungus) used for sauces, soups, spreads and pickling and is found in refrigerated section
  107. dc -boil 2 minutes then soak for an hour
    -overnight in COLD water
  108. dd -1 egg + 3 yolks (whites dry out)
    -sugar
    -oil coats flour proteins so it is better
  109. de -it is a water bath that should be filled to custard line
    -when a knife stuck in the middle comes out clean
  110. df evap: high conc. of milk solids causes 3x increase, flavor, texture and stability less acceptable, chill, add sugar, lower cost
    NFDM: unstable, less cost, add lemon juice or sugar to increase stability, less calories
  111. dg -increases stability but if added too early peaks won't form
    -denatures proteins so it increases stability so it should be added in foamy stage
  112. dh -maillard reaction from added sugar and proteins
    -evap: 60% of water removed
    -condensed: 50% water removed and 15% sugar added
  113. di -waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
    -on each end of the yolk to hold it in place
  114. dj whey= liquid portion (20% of protein)
    casein= protein (80%)
    mainly water
    lactose
    emulsifers, foaming and geling agents
  115. dk a protein that provides strength and structure
  116. dl it has been over kneaded or too much flour was added
  117. dm to ventilate and decorate
  118. dn acid
  119. do soft peak stage because it is still elastic enough to expand
  120. dp -white spot on surface of yolk
    -layer around the yolk
  121. dq rennin
  122. dr shortening and added emulsifiers
  123. ds 1. select best cheese
    2. keep heat low and times short
  124. dt way to measure quality of an egg by cracking egg and observing yolk and white
  125. du -dough collapses
    -gluten stretches and weakens
    -off smell
    -pale
    -less flavor
  126. dv -division of milled flour based on particle size
    -contains finest streams from milling
    -flour containing all different streams
  127. dw glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading
  128. dx -peels easier, shorter cooking and better temp control but has tendency to crack
    -less likely to crack but can cause green ring, can be rubbery and cooks longer
  129. dy changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor
  130. dz -salt disciplines yeast so the CO2 isn't released before it is mixed ito bread
    -sugar increases actvity but can reduce gas production
    -sudden temperature change causes the dough to fall
  131. ea rennin: rich in calcium, tough and rubbery
    acid: less elastic, more fragile, less calcium (lost in whey)
  132. eb anthraquinones
  133. ec increase volume and puffiness but decreases stability
  134. ed 1:1
  135. ee -polyphenolic compounds: thicken milk or add starch before adding other ingredients
    -salt: add to milk and avoid high temps after combining
  136. ef 3x
    2x
  137. eg rancidity due to oxygen molecules added to the double bonds
  138. eh bread because it has the most protein and cake because it has the least amount of protein
  139. ei firm , low volume dough
    sticky, low volume , bland
  140. ej Cut outer skin and tap out seeds or submerge fruit in bowl of cold water to pull off seeds
  141. ek -has cornstarch and water so it needs to be refrigerated, can use cold or warm water to rehydrate
    -most common, rehydrated with lukewarm water
    -small granules, no water needed, need higher water temps
  142. el to avoid gluten development
  143. em fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
    old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white
  144. en -manipulation, batter viscosity, temp, foams, fat and bench time (need short bench time)
  145. eo -it increases viscosity, firmness and clumping
    -it causes fat globules to disperse
  146. ep Cruciferous family
  147. eq -thicken milk or acid with starch before combining
    -add acid to milk (rather than milk to acid)
    -avoid high temps once mixed
    -casein's isoelectric point is 4.6
  148. er -lubrication
    -heat transfer
    -aeration
    -emulsification
    -flavor
    -color
  149. es has nitrogen and emulsifiers to add to volume
  150. et elasticity, softness
    wheat
  151. eu -lowers coagulation temp and can cause curdling and heating too long can cause thinning
    -thicken before adding egg because they have different gelatinization temps and could curdle egg (or temper it)
  152. ev less
    collapsing
  153. ew -albumin (60% of the egg's weight)
    -inner thick, inner thin, outer thick, outer thin
    -loses Co2 and increases pH
  154. ex -rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
    -no cholesterol and little fat
    -complex carbs
    -phytochemicals
    -low cost and nutrient dense
  155. ey complete
    -2 servings per day provide half a woman's daily protein intake and 1/3 of a man's`
  156. ez soil, temp, rainfall, maturity at harvest
  157. fa flax seeds in water, tofu or fruit puree
  158. fb bp: 1 tsp
    bs: 1/4 tsp
    salt: 1/2 tsp for flavor
  159. fc -lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed
  160. fd -sugar-shortening, sugar batter, conventional method
    -blending, pastry blend, flour batter
  161. fe to redistiribute sugars, yeasts etc and even out temperature
  162. ff -temp of ingredients
    -need to cream 100%
    -over adding liquid causes too much gluten and touch texture
  163. fg false
  164. fh direct: adding acid to milk
    indirect: adding bacteria that ferment lactose to lactic acid
  165. fi reducing
  166. fj gluten traps gas bubbles from yeast increasing volme and when it is baked yeast dies leaving structure behind (overkneading kills yeast)
  167. fk how frequent is intake?
    client's doesn't have much of a preference for something
  168. fl whole: leavens, binds, strengthens and colors
    whites: leavens, binds and dries
    yolk: colors, binds, emulsifies, decreases drying
  169. fm 2 stage method which mixes dry ingredients in with all fat before eggs and other liquids are added (can be heavier and fragile)
  170. fn raw
  171. fo at the foamy stage
    soft peak stage
  172. fp They are a significant source of antioxidants and amino acids
  173. fq bubbles float to top and pop causing a heavy, dense cake
  174. fr yeast breads might not leaven properly due to lack of gluten
  175. fs water, protein and fat
  176. ft flavor, regulation of yeast and inhibition of microbes
  177. fu If both the egg white and the yolk are firm and high
  178. fv -immediately releases CO2 when liquid is added
    -double acting has 2 acid salts one that reacts with cold water and one with hot water
  179. fw salt: controls bacteria, tightens gluten
    fat: tenderized, increases volume and increases shelf life
  180. fx coagulates
    viscous
  181. fy -nonenzymatic browning
    -volume and texture
    -tenderizer
    -stabilizer
    -bulk
    -decorative
    -preservative
  182. fz creates an air bubble and protein denatures and wraps around the air bubble and other additives coat the protein
  183. ga seeds within a pod (beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, soybeans) inner coat is red or yellow cotyledon
  184. gb -fillers, emulsifiers, protein bars, foaming agents, gelling agents
  185. gc -initial expansion of dough
    - cell size and thickness of dough
  186. gd consumption of Jerusalem artichokes increase the count of bifidobacteria in the gut
  187. ge folded
  188. gf baked products like popovers, pastries, cream puffs, pour batters and popovers (all baked goods?)
  189. gg lower
  190. gh the choke
  191. gi does not oil off during cooking