191 Matching questions
- what does an egg white foam look like?
- best ratio of baking powder____, baking soda ____ and salt per cup of flour for cakes.
- what are eggs used for in food prep?
- what is the ratio of liquid to flour in popovers?
- what happens if dough is over fermented?
- 1 cup of flour can be leavened with ____ baking soda and ____ acid. ____ of baking powder can substitue.
- evaporated whole milk increases ___x and whipping cream increases ___x.
- what differentiates scones and biscuits?
- single vs double acting baking powder-
- what commercial agent encourages gluten development?
- how do salt, sugar and temperature affect yeast?
- how to prepare legumes-
what are the exceptions?
- How would one know if the quail egg is of optimum quality?
- why does dough need to be punched down after the first rising?
- what is baking powder?
- how does yeast grow?
- what is a bein marie? how is it used for custard and how do you know when custard is done?
- what 4 things can be added to modify flour?
- what is tofu?
- what temperature does milk form a stable dairy foam? what are the other factors of stability
- glutenin adds _______ and gliadin adds ____. what is the only type of flour with gluten?
- what is the straight dough method for mixing? sponge method? batter method? rapid mix?
- Rutabagas belong to what family?
- what are hydrocolloid food additives?
- how do you prevent coagulation of milk by acid?
- how can you minimize curdling of eggs upon heating?
- how does humidity affect storage of legumes? how much do legumes increase in volume when cooked?
- what does it mean if a pan is primed or seasoned?
- the protein in milks is a ______ protein.
- ultra pasteurization vs UHT pasteurization-
- how are eggs graded via candling?
- what is beading and how does it occur? what causes wheeping?
- how do salt and fats affect DOUGH?
- how should egg white foams be mixed into a better?
- True/False: To peel a plantain, you hold onto the stem and peel down the sides, like you would a banana.
- egg white foams are best cooked in what stage?
- what are the gluten forming proteins?
- The results from the research study in the jerusalem artichoke presentation found that:
- how do yeast and gluten interact?
- how are fiddlehead ferns commonly prepared?
- what is the least common way to eat daikon?
- how did pound cake get its name?
- why are bagels boiled before baking?
- best way to melt cheese-
- what are haugh units?
- what is oven spring? what is crumb?
- why do eggs sometimes crack while boiling?
- what happens when not enough acid is added to baking soda?
- why is the oven initially hotter for the first 30 minutes?
- what are the physical leavening agents? chemical?
- what affects the flavor of milk?
- fresh cheese:
- how many grams of soy are required to get the heart health benefits?
- when baking at high altitude liquid should be _______ and temperature should be _______.
- what does it mean if the gluten window tears?
- Plaintains are a good source of
- the cream of tartar in angel food serves what purposes?
- an average daikon is what size?
- how does sugar affect egg prep? salt?
- what products form from steam leavening?
- too much salt in dough causes-
not enough salt causes-
- direct vs indirect acid coagulation of cheese:
- why is fat free cheese tougher when melted?
- creams are ____-_____% fat-
- what months is the fiddlehead fern available?
- what does heat do to milk?
- foam cake vs shortened cake-
- what are the enzymes at work when yeast is added to flours?
- tempeh vs miso-
- short soak-
- at high altitudes ______ leavening should be used to avoid ______
- what months is rhubarb most plentiful?
- about ____ milk produced in US is sold as______.
- Where did Pomegranates originate from?
- grades of milk are based on-
- what occurs during the first rising of dough? 2nd rising? final rising?
- what is compressed yeast? what is dry yeast? what is instant?
- What family does celeriac belong to?
- which type of flour had the largest gluten ball? smallest? why?
- to get a light and airy cake use the _________ method.
- cheeses are usually classified by:
- what type of utensil should be used for egg foams?
- yolk is made of-
- what is the cuticle or bloom of an egg? what is the chalaza?
- Pomegranates are a rich source of what?
- what inhibits softening of beans? how to fix it?
how do hard and soft water affect beans and how to fix it?
- how does pasteurization work? what is tested to see if it was successful?
- pound cakes have less sugar than high ratio cakes so high ratio cakes require-
- how does cooling affect whipping dairy? what happens due to warming?
- Raab was brought to the US by
- two most important factors when preparing quick breads is-
- what enzyme is often added to milk to produce cheese and ice cream?
- why are eggs added last when making cake?
- Brocolli Raab is a good source of
- what are the advantages/disadvantages of hot water start for hard boiling eggs? what are the advantages/disadvantages of cold start?
- what is milk homogenization for?
- when should you modify a recipe?
- when should acid be added to eggs when whipping? when should sugar be added?
- how is air as a leavener influenced?
- what part of the globe artichoke is not eaten?
- how does fat affect foams? how does temp of eggs affect foams? how does age affect foams?
- how does sugar affect whipping? how does acid affect whipping?
- other names for creaming cake method-
other names for 2 step sake method-
- buiscuits, scones, and unleavened breads are made from-
- how does whipping cause milk products to expand?
- how to avoid curdling from salts and polyphenolic comppounds-
- homogenization makes the milk more susceptible to _______.
- Quails are a part of this family:
- Daikon is usually found in _____ dishes.
- an egg has about ____ calories, ____ g of fat, ____ g of protein, and ____ mg of cholesterol.
- what does baking soda need to react?
- what has research shown about fiddlehead ferns?
- how many strokes should be used when using the muffin method?
- how does sugar affect egg foams?
- Broccoflower is also known as?
- germ spot-
- True/False: Rutabagas are poisonous if eaten raw.
- what is the based way to make hard boiled eggs? what happens if cooked too long?
- what are the functions of fat in a recipe?
- Broccoflower is considered a __________ vegetable.
- what is curdling of milk? what causes it?
- why do some recipes call for baking soda and baking powder?
- what are the functions of salt in a recipe?
- what is proofing?
- what causes skin formation on milk? how is it avoided?
- All of the following are good characteristics to look for in fresh broccoli raab
- what is the difference between rennin coagulated curdles of milk and acid coagulated curdles?
- what are the necessary ingredients for bread?
- to get a velvety, melt in mouth cake texture use the ______ method.
- why does overmixing causes tunnels?
- what enzymes cause milk to curdle?
- egg whites cook at a _______ temp than egg yolks.
- Quail eggs are considered a super food because:
- what are the steps of cheese ripening?
- how does homogenization alter milk?
- how to make best muffins-
- what do you NOT when when choosing celeriac?
- what happens to the air cell of an egg as it ages?
- milk allergy vs milk intolerance-
- why do legumes cause flatulence? how to prevent?
- the north has _____ protein content flour than the south because______.
- what can replace eggs in a recipe for vegans?
- All of the following are true about Jerusalem artichokes
- what are the benefits of plant proteins?
- what is gluten?
- what component of rhubarb is poisonous?
- starch strengthens doughs via ________.
- why are butter and shortening better than oils for cakes?
- what composes milk?
- Rutabagas can be purchased in when?
- what happens when water is added to a foam?
- sponge cake vs chiffon cake-
- how does acid affect egg prep? starch?
- why is shortening already aerated?
- what is self rising flour?
- what is another name for egg white? what are the 4 layers? what happens to egg white as it ages?
- why is sweetened condensed milk dark? what is evaporated milk? what is sweetened condensed milk?
- 2 rules for preparing foods with cheese-
- how can the curd be treated to remove whey during cheese making?
- why does nonfat milk have a blue hue?
- Which of the following methods are used to remove pomegranate seeds?
- soft vs hard wheat-
- what is used to prevent staling in bread? what is used to retard mold?
- what is optional in yeast breads?
- whipped evaporated milk vs whipped NFDM-
- what happens when rye,corn, barley, oat, whole wheat etc. replace white wheat flours?
- Nutritional yeast is a good source of
- what are the functions of sugar in a recipe?
- what is the primary purpose of flour? what is the secondary purpose of flour?
- what is rope?
- homogenized milk _______ more easily so it makes puddings, white sauces etc. more ______.
- what are the possible pitfalls of the creaming cake method?
- why is vinegar added to water when hard boiling eggs?
- how are whey isolates used in the food industry?
- how does do acid and salt affect egg foams?
- what are some disadvantages of plant proteins?
- what is the baseline moisture for cakes? how is it increased? which is better for moisture oil or butter?
- The main form of carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichokes is:
- legumes are-
- how do whole eggs. whites and yolks affect dough?
- flour can differ in the same strain due to-
- What nutrients is broccoflower known for being a good source of?
- why is mozzarella cheese used on pizza?
- Celeriac is most commonly used as a low-calorie substitute for which other vegetable?
- When storing nutritional yeast, it is important to remember
- what are the functions of eggs in a recipe?
- fresh vs old eggs-
- how does water affect egg whites?
- what happens if a cake is over leavened?
- why is risen dough scored?
- a -it removes carotenoids and fats that give it a yellow color
- b potatoes
- c Rough texture
- d yeast, salt, bread flour and warm water
- e uses about a pound of each ingredient
- f moisture content, processing method and milk source
- g has baking powder and salt in it
- h intolerance: lack of lactase enzyme so it can't be digested
allergy: immune response to milk that most kids grow out of
- i -evaporation, increased casein, fat, mineral salt concentration
-lid, continiual stirring, floating butter, whip cream
- j -all into bowl and mixed at once
-yeast/water in flour fermented til spongy
-no kneading so bread has course texture
- k creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients
- l at a low temp for a short period of time
- m -acids and calcium so add them after they are tender
-hard water increases cooking time so add 1/8 tsp baking soda when soaking
-soft water may soften beans too much
- n 25 g
- o the pores of the pan are sealed with a layer of heated on oil
- p fast heating causes pressure build up and can be avoided by letting them warm to room temp first
- q -air and steam
-bio and chemical that produce CO2
- r to create a moist surface that doesn't brown easily and is less crunchy and causes starch to gelatinize causing a shiny, smooth crust
- s -soft, white, mild (cottage, cream, ricotta etc)
-muenster, gouda, gorgonzola
-parmesan and romano
- t prevents separation of water and fat by decreasing fat globule size to increase viscosity and creaminess
- u -it increases coagulation temp so more heat is requires and it becomes more tender
-lowers coagulation temp so it should be added before heating
- v -fats/mono and di glycerides
-sodium or calcium propionate
- w foam: higher ration of eggs to flour and doesn't always have fat
shortened: always contains fat
- x 18-36
- y -bulkiness (fill up too quickly)
-may not meet certain vitamin needs (Ca, B12, D, Fe, Zn)
-Fiber, phytates and oxalates can sequester nutrients
-abdominal bloating and gas
- z 2 lbs and 10 inches long
- aa technique used with yeast bread to increase volume through continued fermentation
- ab Romanesco Broccoli
- ac Iran and India
- ad sticky interior from bacteria that occurs in the summer in bread
- ae gelatinization (it also adds texture)
- af causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it
- ag cheese made from soy milk
- ah pepsin, proteases from plants, frui, rennins from calf stomach (rennets used to make cheese/ice cream)
- ai -cutting, heating, salting, knitting (melted), pressing
- aj -emulsification
- ak b. They are related to sunflowers
c. The later in the season they are harvested, the sweeter the taste
d. Jerusalem artichokes are a good source of iron
- al half
fluid milk and cream
- am vitamins A and D
- an -simmer 15-20 minutes
-green ring forms from iron in yolk and sulfur from whites
- ao loses moisture and CO2 so it increases in size
- ap higher
southern flour is in more moderate climates so there is less gluten
- aq they give larger volume, smaller crumb and give more flavor
(never use margarine)
- ar -high humidity decreases storage time and flavor
-2-3x (1lb yields 4-7 cups)
- as Phasianidae
- at -eats the carbs around it creating CO2 and ethanol
- au a. To store in a cool, dry place
b. To store in an airtight package
c. Nutritional value may deteriorate after a year
- av -tiny syrup droplets that form from overcooking so it is avoided with higher heat
-undercooking, underbeating, or hot filling
- aw a few
- ax -1/4 tsp and 1/2 cup
- 1-1 1/4 tsp
- ay -moisten
- az -AA or KBr (carcinogen): to increase strength/elasticity
-salt: increases gluten strength and flavor
-shortening: limits gluten
-sugar: feeds yeast, limits gluten and postpones coagulation
- ba -glycolysis, lipolysis, proteolysis
- bb -interferes with coagulation so even a spot of yolk could interfere
-eggs beat faster at room temp (unlike cream)
-older whip easier and create more volume but fresh are more stable
- bc creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable
- bd they are not carcinogenic
- be -strength, structure, flavor and crumb
-amylase causes sweetness, color and texture
- bf -lumpy batter
- bg 45°F
more fat = more stable
older (at least 1 day old) = more stable
sugar added toward end (esp powdered) = more stable
- bh -indigestible carbs fermented by colonic bacteria cause gas
-soak several times/discard water, rinse well with fresh water, use beano
- bi to break hard shell and to harden egg white if it cracks
- bj fat/eggs
- bk eggs
- bl to contribute to the oven spring (initial rising of the bread)
- bm Vitamin A
- bn cool season vegetable
- bo strengthens foam, increases tenderness and whitens color
- bp molecules that have extra hydroxyl groups so they are hydrophilic and provide stability for frozen/thawed foods
- bq June
- br -coagulation or precipitation of milk proteins
-heat, acid, polyphenolic compounds, salts and enzymes
- bs the bacterial count of the milk
- bt -increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form
- bu it causes increased gluten formation and then chemical leaveners have difficulty rising
- bv vitamin C and Potassium
- bw False
- bx increased, increased
- by younger eggs are seen as a shadow because the chalaza are intact but older eggs are up agianst the shell and have a larger air cell
- bz parsley
- ca -fermentation, dough doubles in size
-punching down to redistribute ingredients (not all recipes)
-should have rounded top, occurs in baking pan to adequately aerate, should always be covered
- cb increased proteins and decreased fats
processed cheese has emulsifying salts that allow it to melt better and won't separate as easily
- cc 75
5 g fat
5 g protein
- cd inulin
- ce metal NEVER plastic because it holds onto fat
-don't use blender or food processor
- cf -invertase and maltase from yeast break starches into simple sugars
-alpha amylase in FLOUR breaks down simple sugars
- cg kills the bacteria so there is a longer shelf life vs. very high temp, aseptically sealed so no refrigeration necessary for up to 3 months
- ch baking soda with acid and salt so it can react with hot and cold water
- ci Antioxidants
- cj whipping stretches the proteins into thin layers that traps bubbles of fat and liquid
- ck acid creates bubbles faster and salt addes flavor but can dry it out
- cl Italian immigrants
- cm all year round
- cn baking powder is reliable but baking soda can neutralize extra acidity (which could cause cake to fall)
- co consistency and temperature
- cp bright green color, firm leaves, no yellowing, thin stalks
- cq sort and rinse
soak (except lentils and split peas)
- cr april through june
- cs sautéing them
- ct -it kills the enzymes that cause rancidity by converty lactose to lactic acid
-alkaline phosphatase is checked
- cu soft: less protein more starch
hard: more protein, better for yeast breads
- cv Protein and B Vitamins
- cw asian
- cx dough
- cy -bein marie
-low temp oven
-short heating time
- cz both are foam cakes but sponge cake only has egg yolks and chiffon has yolks and an oil
- da sodium bicarb forms which has a soapy taste and yellow color
- db tempeh: cooked soybeans inoculated with mold spores to give meaty texture and smoky, nutty flavor
miso: fermented soybean paste (uses fungus) used for sauces, soups, spreads and pickling and is found in refrigerated section
- dc -boil 2 minutes then soak for an hour
-overnight in COLD water
- dd -1 egg + 3 yolks (whites dry out)
-oil coats flour proteins so it is better
- de -it is a water bath that should be filled to custard line
-when a knife stuck in the middle comes out clean
- df evap: high conc. of milk solids causes 3x increase, flavor, texture and stability less acceptable, chill, add sugar, lower cost
NFDM: unstable, less cost, add lemon juice or sugar to increase stability, less calories
- dg -increases stability but if added too early peaks won't form
-denatures proteins so it increases stability so it should be added in foamy stage
- dh -maillard reaction from added sugar and proteins
-evap: 60% of water removed
-condensed: 50% water removed and 15% sugar added
- di -waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
-on each end of the yolk to hold it in place
- dj whey= liquid portion (20% of protein)
casein= protein (80%)
emulsifers, foaming and geling agents
- dk a protein that provides strength and structure
- dl it has been over kneaded or too much flour was added
- dm to ventilate and decorate
- dn acid
- do soft peak stage because it is still elastic enough to expand
- dp -white spot on surface of yolk
-layer around the yolk
- dq rennin
- dr shortening and added emulsifiers
- ds 1. select best cheese
2. keep heat low and times short
- dt way to measure quality of an egg by cracking egg and observing yolk and white
- du -dough collapses
-gluten stretches and weakens
- dv -division of milled flour based on particle size
-contains finest streams from milling
-flour containing all different streams
- dw glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading
- dx -peels easier, shorter cooking and better temp control but has tendency to crack
-less likely to crack but can cause green ring, can be rubbery and cooks longer
- dy changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor
- dz -salt disciplines yeast so the CO2 isn't released before it is mixed ito bread
-sugar increases actvity but can reduce gas production
-sudden temperature change causes the dough to fall
- ea rennin: rich in calcium, tough and rubbery
acid: less elastic, more fragile, less calcium (lost in whey)
- eb anthraquinones
- ec increase volume and puffiness but decreases stability
- ed 1:1
- ee -polyphenolic compounds: thicken milk or add starch before adding other ingredients
-salt: add to milk and avoid high temps after combining
- ef 3x
- eg rancidity due to oxygen molecules added to the double bonds
- eh bread because it has the most protein and cake because it has the least amount of protein
- ei firm , low volume dough
sticky, low volume , bland
- ej Cut outer skin and tap out seeds or submerge fruit in bowl of cold water to pull off seeds
- ek -has cornstarch and water so it needs to be refrigerated, can use cold or warm water to rehydrate
-most common, rehydrated with lukewarm water
-small granules, no water needed, need higher water temps
- el to avoid gluten development
- em fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white
- en -manipulation, batter viscosity, temp, foams, fat and bench time (need short bench time)
- eo -it increases viscosity, firmness and clumping
-it causes fat globules to disperse
- ep Cruciferous family
- eq -thicken milk or acid with starch before combining
-add acid to milk (rather than milk to acid)
-avoid high temps once mixed
-casein's isoelectric point is 4.6
- er -lubrication
- es has nitrogen and emulsifiers to add to volume
- et elasticity, softness
- eu -lowers coagulation temp and can cause curdling and heating too long can cause thinning
-thicken before adding egg because they have different gelatinization temps and could curdle egg (or temper it)
- ev less
- ew -albumin (60% of the egg's weight)
-inner thick, inner thin, outer thick, outer thin
-loses Co2 and increases pH
- ex -rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
-no cholesterol and little fat
-low cost and nutrient dense
- ey complete
-2 servings per day provide half a woman's daily protein intake and 1/3 of a man's`
- ez soil, temp, rainfall, maturity at harvest
- fa flax seeds in water, tofu or fruit puree
- fb bp: 1 tsp
bs: 1/4 tsp
salt: 1/2 tsp for flavor
- fc -lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed
- fd -sugar-shortening, sugar batter, conventional method
-blending, pastry blend, flour batter
- fe to redistiribute sugars, yeasts etc and even out temperature
- ff -temp of ingredients
-need to cream 100%
-over adding liquid causes too much gluten and touch texture
- fg false
- fh direct: adding acid to milk
indirect: adding bacteria that ferment lactose to lactic acid
- fi reducing
- fj gluten traps gas bubbles from yeast increasing volme and when it is baked yeast dies leaving structure behind (overkneading kills yeast)
- fk how frequent is intake?
client's doesn't have much of a preference for something
- fl whole: leavens, binds, strengthens and colors
whites: leavens, binds and dries
yolk: colors, binds, emulsifies, decreases drying
- fm 2 stage method which mixes dry ingredients in with all fat before eggs and other liquids are added (can be heavier and fragile)
- fn raw
- fo at the foamy stage
soft peak stage
- fp They are a significant source of antioxidants and amino acids
- fq bubbles float to top and pop causing a heavy, dense cake
- fr yeast breads might not leaven properly due to lack of gluten
- fs water, protein and fat
- ft flavor, regulation of yeast and inhibition of microbes
- fu If both the egg white and the yolk are firm and high
- fv -immediately releases CO2 when liquid is added
-double acting has 2 acid salts one that reacts with cold water and one with hot water
- fw salt: controls bacteria, tightens gluten
fat: tenderized, increases volume and increases shelf life
- fx coagulates
- fy -nonenzymatic browning
-volume and texture
- fz creates an air bubble and protein denatures and wraps around the air bubble and other additives coat the protein
- ga seeds within a pod (beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, soybeans) inner coat is red or yellow cotyledon
- gb -fillers, emulsifiers, protein bars, foaming agents, gelling agents
- gc -initial expansion of dough
- cell size and thickness of dough
- gd consumption of Jerusalem artichokes increase the count of bifidobacteria in the gut
- ge folded
- gf baked products like popovers, pastries, cream puffs, pour batters and popovers (all baked goods?)
- gg lower
- gh the choke
- gi does not oil off during cooking