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191 Multiple choice questions

  1. kills the bacteria so there is a longer shelf life vs. very high temp, aseptically sealed so no refrigeration necessary for up to 3 months
  2. 75
    5 g fat
    5 g protein
    215 mg
  3. evap: high conc. of milk solids causes 3x increase, flavor, texture and stability less acceptable, chill, add sugar, lower cost
    NFDM: unstable, less cost, add lemon juice or sugar to increase stability, less calories
  4. less
    collapsing
  5. has nitrogen and emulsifiers to add to volume
  6. Protein and B Vitamins
  7. -it kills the enzymes that cause rancidity by converty lactose to lactic acid
    -alkaline phosphatase is checked
  8. fast heating causes pressure build up and can be avoided by letting them warm to room temp first
  9. -simmer 15-20 minutes
    -green ring forms from iron in yolk and sulfur from whites
  10. Cut outer skin and tap out seeds or submerge fruit in bowl of cold water to pull off seeds
  11. firm , low volume dough
    sticky, low volume , bland
  12. fat/eggs
  13. -eats the carbs around it creating CO2 and ethanol
    -budding
  14. If both the egg white and the yolk are firm and high
  15. -interferes with coagulation so even a spot of yolk could interfere
    -eggs beat faster at room temp (unlike cream)
    -older whip easier and create more volume but fresh are more stable
  16. parsley
  17. -increases stability but if added too early peaks won't form
    -denatures proteins so it increases stability so it should be added in foamy stage
  18. -rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
    -no cholesterol and little fat
    -complex carbs
    -phytochemicals
    -low cost and nutrient dense
  19. -lumpy batter
    -no overmixing
  20. -evaporation, increased casein, fat, mineral salt concentration
    -lid, continiual stirring, floating butter, whip cream
  21. yeast breads might not leaven properly due to lack of gluten
  22. -has cornstarch and water so it needs to be refrigerated, can use cold or warm water to rehydrate
    -most common, rehydrated with lukewarm water
    -small granules, no water needed, need higher water temps
  23. 2 stage method which mixes dry ingredients in with all fat before eggs and other liquids are added (can be heavier and fragile)
  24. Phasianidae
  25. sticky interior from bacteria that occurs in the summer in bread
  26. -white spot on surface of yolk
    -layer around the yolk
  27. They are a significant source of antioxidants and amino acids
  28. -waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
    -on each end of the yolk to hold it in place
  29. increase volume and puffiness but decreases stability
  30. soft peak stage because it is still elastic enough to expand
  31. -fillers, emulsifiers, protein bars, foaming agents, gelling agents
  32. higher
    southern flour is in more moderate climates so there is less gluten
  33. loses moisture and CO2 so it increases in size
  34. -high humidity decreases storage time and flavor
    -2-3x (1lb yields 4-7 cups)
  35. -strength, structure, flavor and crumb
    -amylase causes sweetness, color and texture
  36. consistency and temperature
  37. potatoes
  38. gluten traps gas bubbles from yeast increasing volme and when it is baked yeast dies leaving structure behind (overkneading kills yeast)
  39. lower
  40. fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
    old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white
  41. -lubrication
    -heat transfer
    -aeration
    -emulsification
    -flavor
    -color
  42. -moisten
    -stabilizing
    -flavor
    -color
    -emulsification
    -leavening
  43. to contribute to the oven spring (initial rising of the bread)
  44. a. To store in a cool, dry place
    b. To store in an airtight package
    c. Nutritional value may deteriorate after a year
  45. whipping stretches the proteins into thin layers that traps bubbles of fat and liquid
  46. -boil 2 minutes then soak for an hour
    -overnight in COLD water
  47. at the foamy stage
    soft peak stage
  48. False
  49. how frequent is intake?
    client's doesn't have much of a preference for something
  50. pepsin, proteases from plants, frui, rennins from calf stomach (rennets used to make cheese/ice cream)
  51. folded
  52. 45°F
    more fat = more stable
    older (at least 1 day old) = more stable
    sugar added toward end (esp powdered) = more stable
  53. it has been over kneaded or too much flour was added
  54. coagulates
    viscous
  55. June
  56. cool season vegetable
  57. the bacterial count of the milk
  58. sort and rinse
    soak (except lentils and split peas)
  59. Vitamin A
  60. -salt disciplines yeast so the CO2 isn't released before it is mixed ito bread
    -sugar increases actvity but can reduce gas production
    -sudden temperature change causes the dough to fall
  61. -division of milled flour based on particle size
    -contains finest streams from milling
    -flour containing all different streams
  62. creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable
  63. -it increases coagulation temp so more heat is requires and it becomes more tender
    -lowers coagulation temp so it should be added before heating
  64. -fermentation, dough doubles in size
    -punching down to redistribute ingredients (not all recipes)
    -should have rounded top, occurs in baking pan to adequately aerate, should always be covered
  65. -lowers coagulation temp and can cause curdling and heating too long can cause thinning
    -thicken before adding egg because they have different gelatinization temps and could curdle egg (or temper it)
  66. dough
  67. 25 g
  68. -maillard reaction from added sugar and proteins
    -evap: 60% of water removed
    -condensed: 50% water removed and 15% sugar added
  69. -dough collapses
    -gluten stretches and weakens
    -off smell
    -pale
    -less flavor
  70. rennin
  71. tempeh: cooked soybeans inoculated with mold spores to give meaty texture and smoky, nutty flavor
    miso: fermented soybean paste (uses fungus) used for sauces, soups, spreads and pickling and is found in refrigerated section
  72. -manipulation, batter viscosity, temp, foams, fat and bench time (need short bench time)
  73. -all into bowl and mixed at once
    -yeast/water in flour fermented til spongy
    -no kneading so bread has course texture
    -machine
  74. way to measure quality of an egg by cracking egg and observing yolk and white
  75. younger eggs are seen as a shadow because the chalaza are intact but older eggs are up agianst the shell and have a larger air cell
  76. -soft, white, mild (cottage, cream, ricotta etc)
    -brie camambert
    -muenster, gouda, gorgonzola
    -cheddar, swiss
    -parmesan and romano
  77. -it is a water bath that should be filled to custard line
    -when a knife stuck in the middle comes out clean
  78. -coagulation or precipitation of milk proteins
    -heat, acid, polyphenolic compounds, salts and enzymes
  79. vitamins A and D
  80. -AA or KBr (carcinogen): to increase strength/elasticity
    -salt: increases gluten strength and flavor
    -shortening: limits gluten
    -sugar: feeds yeast, limits gluten and postpones coagulation
  81. to redistiribute sugars, yeasts etc and even out temperature
  82. false
  83. all year round
  84. bread because it has the most protein and cake because it has the least amount of protein
  85. -albumin (60% of the egg's weight)
    -inner thick, inner thin, outer thick, outer thin
    -loses Co2 and increases pH
  86. anthraquinones
  87. baking powder is reliable but baking soda can neutralize extra acidity (which could cause cake to fall)
  88. a protein that provides strength and structure
  89. acid
  90. complete
    -2 servings per day provide half a woman's daily protein intake and 1/3 of a man's`
  91. to ventilate and decorate
  92. prevents separation of water and fat by decreasing fat globule size to increase viscosity and creaminess
  93. it causes increased gluten formation and then chemical leaveners have difficulty rising
  94. -thicken milk or acid with starch before combining
    -add acid to milk (rather than milk to acid)
    -avoid high temps once mixed
    -casein's isoelectric point is 4.6
  95. changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor
  96. -increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form
  97. a few
  98. elasticity, softness
    wheat
  99. has baking powder and salt in it
  100. soft: less protein more starch
    hard: more protein, better for yeast breads
  101. -invertase and maltase from yeast break starches into simple sugars
    -alpha amylase in FLOUR breaks down simple sugars
  102. -bulkiness (fill up too quickly)
    -may not meet certain vitamin needs (Ca, B12, D, Fe, Zn)
    -Fiber, phytates and oxalates can sequester nutrients
    -abdominal bloating and gas
  103. foam: higher ration of eggs to flour and doesn't always have fat
    shortened: always contains fat
  104. soil, temp, rainfall, maturity at harvest
  105. -initial expansion of dough
    - cell size and thickness of dough
  106. cheese made from soy milk
  107. whey= liquid portion (20% of protein)
    casein= protein (80%)
    mainly water
    lactose
    emulsifers, foaming and geling agents
  108. both are foam cakes but sponge cake only has egg yolks and chiffon has yolks and an oil
  109. sodium bicarb forms which has a soapy taste and yellow color
  110. bright green color, firm leaves, no yellowing, thin stalks
  111. april through june
  112. flavor, regulation of yeast and inhibition of microbes
  113. strengthens foam, increases tenderness and whitens color
  114. they give larger volume, smaller crumb and give more flavor
    (never use margarine)
  115. 1. select best cheese
    2. keep heat low and times short
  116. shortening and added emulsifiers
  117. creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients
  118. to avoid gluten development
  119. Cruciferous family
  120. increased proteins and decreased fats
    processed cheese has emulsifying salts that allow it to melt better and won't separate as easily
  121. 1:1
  122. -glycolysis, lipolysis, proteolysis
  123. -it removes carotenoids and fats that give it a yellow color
  124. glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading
  125. -temp of ingredients
    -need to cream 100%
    -over adding liquid causes too much gluten and touch texture
  126. 18-36
  127. 3x
    2x
  128. water, protein and fat
  129. technique used with yeast bread to increase volume through continued fermentation
  130. vitamin C and Potassium
  131. eggs
  132. asian
  133. to break hard shell and to harden egg white if it cracks
  134. -air and steam
    -bio and chemical that produce CO2
  135. metal NEVER plastic because it holds onto fat
    -don't use blender or food processor
  136. Italian immigrants
  137. they are not carcinogenic
  138. seeds within a pod (beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, soybeans) inner coat is red or yellow cotyledon
  139. molecules that have extra hydroxyl groups so they are hydrophilic and provide stability for frozen/thawed foods
  140. consumption of Jerusalem artichokes increase the count of bifidobacteria in the gut
  141. uses about a pound of each ingredient
  142. b. They are related to sunflowers
    c. The later in the season they are harvested, the sweeter the taste
    d. Jerusalem artichokes are a good source of iron
  143. causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it
  144. half
    fluid milk and cream
  145. -immediately releases CO2 when liquid is added
    -double acting has 2 acid salts one that reacts with cold water and one with hot water
  146. bp: 1 tsp
    bs: 1/4 tsp
    salt: 1/2 tsp for flavor
  147. raw
  148. Antioxidants
  149. Iran and India
  150. at a low temp for a short period of time
  151. -peels easier, shorter cooking and better temp control but has tendency to crack
    -less likely to crack but can cause green ring, can be rubbery and cooks longer
  152. -indigestible carbs fermented by colonic bacteria cause gas
    -soak several times/discard water, rinse well with fresh water, use beano
  153. whole: leavens, binds, strengthens and colors
    whites: leavens, binds and dries
    yolk: colors, binds, emulsifies, decreases drying
  154. acid creates bubbles faster and salt addes flavor but can dry it out
  155. -lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed
  156. -acids and calcium so add them after they are tender
    -hard water increases cooking time so add 1/8 tsp baking soda when soaking
    -soft water may soften beans too much
  157. Romanesco Broccoli
    Green cauliflower
  158. to create a moist surface that doesn't brown easily and is less crunchy and causes starch to gelatinize causing a shiny, smooth crust
  159. -polyphenolic compounds: thicken milk or add starch before adding other ingredients
    -salt: add to milk and avoid high temps after combining
  160. -1/4 tsp and 1/2 cup
    - 1-1 1/4 tsp
  161. inulin
  162. the choke
  163. direct: adding acid to milk
    indirect: adding bacteria that ferment lactose to lactic acid
  164. bubbles float to top and pop causing a heavy, dense cake
  165. increased, increased
  166. the pores of the pan are sealed with a layer of heated on oil
  167. flax seeds in water, tofu or fruit puree
  168. sautéing them
  169. gelatinization (it also adds texture)
  170. baking soda with acid and salt so it can react with hot and cold water
  171. -fats/mono and di glycerides
    -sodium or calcium propionate
  172. reducing
  173. rennin: rich in calcium, tough and rubbery
    acid: less elastic, more fragile, less calcium (lost in whey)
  174. creates an air bubble and protein denatures and wraps around the air bubble and other additives coat the protein
  175. -sugar-shortening, sugar batter, conventional method
    -blending, pastry blend, flour batter
  176. yeast, salt, bread flour and warm water
  177. does not oil off during cooking
  178. -nonenzymatic browning
    -volume and texture
    -tenderizer
    -stabilizer
    -bulk
    -decorative
    -preservative
  179. -bein marie
    -low temp oven
    -short heating time
    -tempering
  180. intolerance: lack of lactase enzyme so it can't be digested
    allergy: immune response to milk that most kids grow out of
  181. salt: controls bacteria, tightens gluten
    fat: tenderized, increases volume and increases shelf life
  182. Rough texture
  183. moisture content, processing method and milk source
  184. baked products like popovers, pastries, cream puffs, pour batters and popovers (all baked goods?)
  185. -tiny syrup droplets that form from overcooking so it is avoided with higher heat
    -undercooking, underbeating, or hot filling
  186. rancidity due to oxygen molecules added to the double bonds
  187. -cutting, heating, salting, knitting (melted), pressing
  188. -it increases viscosity, firmness and clumping
    -it causes fat globules to disperse
  189. -emulsification
    -thickening
    -leavening
    -binding
    -interfering
    -color/flavor
    -clarification
  190. 2 lbs and 10 inches long
  191. -1 egg + 3 yolks (whites dry out)
    -sugar
    -oil coats flour proteins so it is better