NAME

Question types


Start with


Question limit

of 191 available terms

Print test

191 True/False questions

  1. what are the steps of cheese ripening?-glycolysis, lipolysis, proteolysis

          

  2. All of the following are good characteristics to look for in fresh broccoli raabCut outer skin and tap out seeds or submerge fruit in bowl of cold water to pull off seeds

          

  3. how does whipping cause milk products to expand?acid creates bubbles faster and salt addes flavor but can dry it out

          

  4. legumes are-seeds within a pod (beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, soybeans) inner coat is red or yellow cotyledon

          

  5. what is oven spring? what is crumb?-initial expansion of dough
    - cell size and thickness of dough

          

  6. glutenin adds _______ and gliadin adds ____. what is the only type of flour with gluten?-waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
    -on each end of the yolk to hold it in place

          

  7. what 4 things can be added to modify flour?-AA or KBr (carcinogen): to increase strength/elasticity
    -salt: increases gluten strength and flavor
    -shortening: limits gluten
    -sugar: feeds yeast, limits gluten and postpones coagulation

          

  8. what can replace eggs in a recipe for vegans?flax seeds in water, tofu or fruit puree

          

  9. what are the physical leavening agents? chemical?-air and steam
    -bio and chemical that produce CO2

          

  10. Brocolli Raab is a good source ofvitamins A and D

          

  11. single vs double acting baking powder--increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form

          

  12. two most important factors when preparing quick breads is-Rough texture

          

  13. what is baking powder?sticky interior from bacteria that occurs in the summer in bread

          

  14. what months is rhubarb most plentiful?anthraquinones

          

  15. what has research shown about fiddlehead ferns?it has been over kneaded or too much flour was added

          

  16. what is compressed yeast? what is dry yeast? what is instant?-has cornstarch and water so it needs to be refrigerated, can use cold or warm water to rehydrate
    -most common, rehydrated with lukewarm water
    -small granules, no water needed, need higher water temps

          

  17. fresh cheese:
    soft cheese:
    semi hard:
    hard:
    very hard:
    sort and rinse
    soak (except lentils and split peas)

          

  18. buiscuits, scones, and unleavened breads are made from--AA or KBr (carcinogen): to increase strength/elasticity
    -salt: increases gluten strength and flavor
    -shortening: limits gluten
    -sugar: feeds yeast, limits gluten and postpones coagulation

          

  19. how do salt and fats affect DOUGH?-increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form

          

  20. why is sweetened condensed milk dark? what is evaporated milk? what is sweetened condensed milk?soft peak stage because it is still elastic enough to expand

          

  21. how are eggs graded via candling?younger eggs are seen as a shadow because the chalaza are intact but older eggs are up agianst the shell and have a larger air cell

          

  22. to get a velvety, melt in mouth cake texture use the ______ method.creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients

          

  23. how can the curd be treated to remove whey during cheese making?-waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
    -on each end of the yolk to hold it in place

          

  24. how does sugar affect whipping? how does acid affect whipping?-increases stability but if added too early peaks won't form
    -denatures proteins so it increases stability so it should be added in foamy stage

          

  25. how do you prevent coagulation of milk by acid?-thicken milk or acid with starch before combining
    -add acid to milk (rather than milk to acid)
    -avoid high temps once mixed
    -casein's isoelectric point is 4.6

          

  26. what are the enzymes at work when yeast is added to flours?glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading

          

  27. what is rope?sticky interior from bacteria that occurs in the summer in bread

          

  28. Rutabagas can be purchased in when?all year round

          

  29. what is the cuticle or bloom of an egg? what is the chalaza?-waxy coating on an eggshell that seals the pores
    -on each end of the yolk to hold it in place

          

  30. 2 rules for preparing foods with cheese-1. select best cheese
    2. keep heat low and times short

          

  31. The results from the research study in the jerusalem artichoke presentation found that:consumption of Jerusalem artichokes increase the count of bifidobacteria in the gut

          

  32. what are the functions of fat in a recipe?-lubrication
    -heat transfer
    -aeration
    -emulsification
    -flavor
    -color

          

  33. an egg has about ____ calories, ____ g of fat, ____ g of protein, and ____ mg of cholesterol.less
    collapsing

          

  34. what months is the fiddlehead fern available?-lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed

          

  35. what is beading and how does it occur? what causes wheeping?-tiny syrup droplets that form from overcooking so it is avoided with higher heat
    -undercooking, underbeating, or hot filling

          

  36. how are whey isolates used in the food industry?-fillers, emulsifiers, protein bars, foaming agents, gelling agents

          

  37. why does overmixing causes tunnels?it causes increased gluten formation and then chemical leaveners have difficulty rising

          

  38. what happens when rye,corn, barley, oat, whole wheat etc. replace white wheat flours?creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable

          

  39. which type of flour had the largest gluten ball? smallest? why?bread because it has the most protein and cake because it has the least amount of protein

          

  40. why is the oven initially hotter for the first 30 minutes?raw

          

  41. sponge cake vs chiffon cake-both are foam cakes but sponge cake only has egg yolks and chiffon has yolks and an oil

          

  42. what enzyme is often added to milk to produce cheese and ice cream?loses moisture and CO2 so it increases in size

          

  43. what is a bein marie? how is it used for custard and how do you know when custard is done?-it is a water bath that should be filled to custard line
    -when a knife stuck in the middle comes out clean

          

  44. what happens to the air cell of an egg as it ages?loses moisture and CO2 so it increases in size

          

  45. Which of the following methods are used to remove pomegranate seeds?Cut outer skin and tap out seeds or submerge fruit in bowl of cold water to pull off seeds

          

  46. the protein in milks is a ______ protein.complete
    -2 servings per day provide half a woman's daily protein intake and 1/3 of a man's`

          

  47. flour can differ in the same strain due to-soil, temp, rainfall, maturity at harvest

          

  48. why do eggs sometimes crack while boiling?changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor

          

  49. why is fat free cheese tougher when melted?to ventilate and decorate

          

  50. what is the least common way to eat daikon?causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it

          

  51. Quails are a part of this family:Phasianidae

          

  52. how do salt, sugar and temperature affect yeast?-it increases coagulation temp so more heat is requires and it becomes more tender
    -lowers coagulation temp so it should be added before heating

          

  53. why is mozzarella cheese used on pizza?does not oil off during cooking

          

  54. what are the functions of salt in a recipe?causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it

          

  55. what is the ratio of liquid to flour in popovers?1:1

          

  56. how many grams of soy are required to get the heart health benefits?June

          

  57. Quail eggs are considered a super food because:They are a significant source of antioxidants and amino acids

          

  58. the cream of tartar in angel food serves what purposes?strengthens foam, increases tenderness and whitens color

          

  59. what does heat do to milk?baking soda with acid and salt so it can react with hot and cold water

          

  60. how does pasteurization work? what is tested to see if it was successful?-it kills the enzymes that cause rancidity by converty lactose to lactic acid
    -alkaline phosphatase is checked

          

  61. why are bagels boiled before baking?to create a moist surface that doesn't brown easily and is less crunchy and causes starch to gelatinize causing a shiny, smooth crust

          

  62. homogenized milk _______ more easily so it makes puddings, white sauces etc. more ______.higher
    southern flour is in more moderate climates so there is less gluten

          

  63. when should you modify a recipe?fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
    old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white

          

  64. what enzymes cause milk to curdle?pepsin, proteases from plants, frui, rennins from calf stomach (rennets used to make cheese/ice cream)

          

  65. whipped evaporated milk vs whipped NFDM-evap: high conc. of milk solids causes 3x increase, flavor, texture and stability less acceptable, chill, add sugar, lower cost
    NFDM: unstable, less cost, add lemon juice or sugar to increase stability, less calories

          

  66. what is tofu?cheese made from soy milk

          

  67. what are the advantages/disadvantages of hot water start for hard boiling eggs? what are the advantages/disadvantages of cold start?-peels easier, shorter cooking and better temp control but has tendency to crack
    -less likely to crack but can cause green ring, can be rubbery and cooks longer

          

  68. how does sugar affect egg prep? salt?-it increases coagulation temp so more heat is requires and it becomes more tender
    -lowers coagulation temp so it should be added before heating

          

  69. cheeses are usually classified by:moisture content, processing method and milk source

          

  70. how are fiddlehead ferns commonly prepared?-manipulation, batter viscosity, temp, foams, fat and bench time (need short bench time)

          

  71. to get a light and airy cake use the _________ method.Antioxidants

          

  72. what is another name for egg white? what are the 4 layers? what happens to egg white as it ages?-albumin (60% of the egg's weight)
    -inner thick, inner thin, outer thick, outer thin
    -loses Co2 and increases pH

          

  73. how is air as a leavener influenced?-manipulation, batter viscosity, temp, foams, fat and bench time (need short bench time)

          

  74. evaporated whole milk increases ___x and whipping cream increases ___x.3x
    2x

          

  75. what are haugh units?baking soda with acid and salt so it can react with hot and cold water

          

  76. how does yeast grow?-eats the carbs around it creating CO2 and ethanol
    -budding

          

  77. how does sugar affect egg foams?-eats the carbs around it creating CO2 and ethanol
    -budding

          

  78. what happens if dough is over fermented?creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable

          

  79. what part of the globe artichoke is not eaten?the choke

          

  80. what is the based way to make hard boiled eggs? what happens if cooked too long?-simmer 15-20 minutes
    -green ring forms from iron in yolk and sulfur from whites

          

  81. what are the gluten forming proteins?-rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
    -no cholesterol and little fat
    -complex carbs
    -phytochemicals
    -low cost and nutrient dense

          

  82. homogenization makes the milk more susceptible to _______.creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients

          

  83. how do yeast and gluten interact?gluten traps gas bubbles from yeast increasing volme and when it is baked yeast dies leaving structure behind (overkneading kills yeast)

          

  84. why is vinegar added to water when hard boiling eggs?to avoid gluten development

          

  85. soft vs hard wheat-sticky interior from bacteria that occurs in the summer in bread

          

  86. Raab was brought to the US byItalian immigrants

          

  87. what does an egg white foam look like?creates an air bubble and protein denatures and wraps around the air bubble and other additives coat the protein

          

  88. how to avoid curdling from salts and polyphenolic comppounds--polyphenolic compounds: thicken milk or add starch before adding other ingredients
    -salt: add to milk and avoid high temps after combining

          

  89. starch strengthens doughs via ________.-lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed

          

  90. The main form of carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichokes is:soil, temp, rainfall, maturity at harvest

          

  91. what are the necessary ingredients for bread?-rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
    -no cholesterol and little fat
    -complex carbs
    -phytochemicals
    -low cost and nutrient dense

          

  92. when should acid be added to eggs when whipping? when should sugar be added?to avoid gluten development

          

  93. best way to melt cheese-at a low temp for a short period of time

          

  94. Broccoflower is also known as?soft: less protein more starch
    hard: more protein, better for yeast breads

          

  95. what do you NOT when when choosing celeriac?Rough texture

          

  96. about ____ milk produced in US is sold as______.half
    fluid milk and cream

          

  97. when baking at high altitude liquid should be _______ and temperature should be _______.less
    collapsing

          

  98. what does it mean if a pan is primed or seasoned?creates an air bubble and protein denatures and wraps around the air bubble and other additives coat the protein

          

  99. what are the functions of sugar in a recipe?-nonenzymatic browning
    -volume and texture
    -tenderizer
    -stabilizer
    -bulk
    -decorative
    -preservative

          

  100. How would one know if the quail egg is of optimum quality?If both the egg white and the yolk are firm and high

          

  101. the north has _____ protein content flour than the south because______.firm , low volume dough
    sticky, low volume , bland

          

  102. what is proofing?technique used with yeast bread to increase volume through continued fermentation

          

  103. an average daikon is what size?increase volume and puffiness but decreases stability

          

  104. how do whole eggs. whites and yolks affect dough?changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor

          

  105. what is the straight dough method for mixing? sponge method? batter method? rapid mix?-all into bowl and mixed at once
    -yeast/water in flour fermented til spongy
    -no kneading so bread has course texture
    -machine

          

  106. Rutabagas belong to what family?Italian immigrants

          

  107. what does baking soda need to react?causes whey proteins and calcium phosphate to mesh forming a film (flocculation) or it can scorch it

          

  108. what products form from steam leavening?-glycolysis, lipolysis, proteolysis

          

  109. pound cakes have less sugar than high ratio cakes so high ratio cakes require-shortening and added emulsifiers

          

  110. short soak-
    long soak-
    technique used with yeast bread to increase volume through continued fermentation

          

  111. why does nonfat milk have a blue hue?-it removes carotenoids and fats that give it a yellow color

          

  112. what occurs during the first rising of dough? 2nd rising? final rising?-fermentation, dough doubles in size
    -punching down to redistribute ingredients (not all recipes)
    -should have rounded top, occurs in baking pan to adequately aerate, should always be covered

          

  113. what inhibits softening of beans? how to fix it?
    how do hard and soft water affect beans and how to fix it?
    -acids and calcium so add them after they are tender
    -hard water increases cooking time so add 1/8 tsp baking soda when soaking
    -soft water may soften beans too much

          

  114. What nutrients is broccoflower known for being a good source of?vitamin C and Potassium

          

  115. what is the baseline moisture for cakes? how is it increased? which is better for moisture oil or butter?-1 egg + 3 yolks (whites dry out)
    -sugar
    -oil coats flour proteins so it is better

          

  116. what happens when water is added to a foam?creates a softer foam and increases volume and is good for softening cakes but is less stable

          

  117. what affects the flavor of milk?-lactose, salts, sulfor compounds, SCFA, heat, sunlight, oxidation, copper equipment, animal feed

          

  118. what are eggs used for in food prep?-emulsification
    -thickening
    -leavening
    -binding
    -interfering
    -color/flavor
    -clarification

          

  119. how does water affect egg whites?increase volume and puffiness but decreases stability

          

  120. what is used to prevent staling in bread? what is used to retard mold?-fats/mono and di glycerides
    -sodium or calcium propionate

          

  121. what is curdling of milk? what causes it?-coagulation or precipitation of milk proteins
    -heat, acid, polyphenolic compounds, salts and enzymes

          

  122. foam cake vs shortened cake-fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
    old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white

          

  123. egg whites cook at a _______ temp than egg yolks.-increases stability, creates stable foam so add at soft peak stage so peaks can still form

          

  124. Nutritional yeast is a good source ofvitamins A and D

          

  125. yolk is made of-water, protein and fat

          

  126. too much salt in dough causes-
    not enough salt causes-
    salt: controls bacteria, tightens gluten
    fat: tenderized, increases volume and increases shelf life

          

  127. how does humidity affect storage of legumes? how much do legumes increase in volume when cooked?-it increases viscosity, firmness and clumping
    -it causes fat globules to disperse

          

  128. why is risen dough scored?technique used with yeast bread to increase volume through continued fermentation

          

  129. what temperature does milk form a stable dairy foam? what are the other factors of stability45°F
    more fat = more stable
    older (at least 1 day old) = more stable
    sugar added toward end (esp powdered) = more stable

          

  130. what is milk homogenization for?prevents separation of water and fat by decreasing fat globule size to increase viscosity and creaminess

          

  131. True/False: Rutabagas are poisonous if eaten raw.false

          

  132. All of the following are true about Jerusalem artichokesb. They are related to sunflowers
    c. The later in the season they are harvested, the sweeter the taste
    d. Jerusalem artichokes are a good source of iron

          

  133. True/False: To peel a plantain, you hold onto the stem and peel down the sides, like you would a banana.False

          

  134. stream-
    patent flour-
    straight flour-
    -division of milled flour based on particle size
    -contains finest streams from milling
    -flour containing all different streams

          

  135. why do some recipes call for baking soda and baking powder?fast heating causes pressure build up and can be avoided by letting them warm to room temp first

          

  136. germ spot-
    vitelline layer-
    -white spot on surface of yolk
    -layer around the yolk

          

  137. egg white foams are best cooked in what stage?soft peak stage because it is still elastic enough to expand

          

  138. how does fat affect foams? how does temp of eggs affect foams? how does age affect foams?-interferes with coagulation so even a spot of yolk could interfere
    -eggs beat faster at room temp (unlike cream)
    -older whip easier and create more volume but fresh are more stable

          

  139. what happens when not enough acid is added to baking soda?sodium bicarb forms which has a soapy taste and yellow color

          

  140. why are eggs added last when making cake?-emulsification
    -thickening
    -leavening
    -binding
    -interfering
    -color/flavor
    -clarification

          

  141. what happens if a cake is over leavened?bubbles float to top and pop causing a heavy, dense cake

          

  142. other names for creaming cake method-
    other names for 2 step sake method-
    -sugar-shortening, sugar batter, conventional method
    -blending, pastry blend, flour batter

          

  143. what differentiates scones and biscuits?eggs

          

  144. how does cooling affect whipping dairy? what happens due to warming?-bein marie
    -low temp oven
    -short heating time
    -tempering

          

  145. what is the primary purpose of flour? what is the secondary purpose of flour?-tiny syrup droplets that form from overcooking so it is avoided with higher heat
    -undercooking, underbeating, or hot filling

          

  146. direct vs indirect acid coagulation of cheese:1. select best cheese
    2. keep heat low and times short

          

  147. what composes milk?tempeh: cooked soybeans inoculated with mold spores to give meaty texture and smoky, nutty flavor
    miso: fermented soybean paste (uses fungus) used for sauces, soups, spreads and pickling and is found in refrigerated section

          

  148. why do legumes cause flatulence? how to prevent?does not oil off during cooking

          

  149. milk allergy vs milk intolerance-intolerance: lack of lactase enzyme so it can't be digested
    allergy: immune response to milk that most kids grow out of

          

  150. how does acid affect egg prep? starch?gluten traps gas bubbles from yeast increasing volme and when it is baked yeast dies leaving structure behind (overkneading kills yeast)

          

  151. how can you minimize curdling of eggs upon heating?-bein marie
    -low temp oven
    -short heating time
    -tempering

          

  152. what are some disadvantages of plant proteins?-rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
    -no cholesterol and little fat
    -complex carbs
    -phytochemicals
    -low cost and nutrient dense

          

  153. what is the difference between rennin coagulated curdles of milk and acid coagulated curdles?rennin: rich in calcium, tough and rubbery
    acid: less elastic, more fragile, less calcium (lost in whey)

          

  154. what are the possible pitfalls of the creaming cake method?to avoid gluten development

          

  155. why is shortening already aerated?to ventilate and decorate

          

  156. grades of milk are based on-fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
    old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white

          

  157. how many strokes should be used when using the muffin method?a few

          

  158. why are butter and shortening better than oils for cakes?they give larger volume, smaller crumb and give more flavor
    (never use margarine)

          

  159. Daikon is usually found in _____ dishes.asian

          

  160. creams are ____-_____% fat-18-36

          

  161. how to prepare legumes-
    what are the exceptions?
    glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading

          

  162. Where did Pomegranates originate from?Iran and India

          

  163. what are the functions of eggs in a recipe?flavor, regulation of yeast and inhibition of microbes

          

  164. what is gluten?a protein that provides strength and structure

          

  165. fresh vs old eggs-fresh: firm yolk, tall white and yolk, large proportion of thick white to think white
    old: flat and runny and equal thin to thick white

          

  166. tempeh vs miso-tempeh: cooked soybeans inoculated with mold spores to give meaty texture and smoky, nutty flavor
    miso: fermented soybean paste (uses fungus) used for sauces, soups, spreads and pickling and is found in refrigerated section

          

  167. what are hydrocolloid food additives?glutenin and gliadin which have different functions so they can't work independently and come together during kneading

          

  168. how does homogenization alter milk?changes surface tension, cooking properties, color, viscosity and flavor

          

  169. 1 cup of flour can be leavened with ____ baking soda and ____ acid. ____ of baking powder can substitue.creaming cake: puts max air into fat by creaming sugar and fat then alternating addition of dry and liquid ingredients

          

  170. how should egg white foams be mixed into a better?acid

          

  171. how did pound cake get its name?uses about a pound of each ingredient

          

  172. what type of utensil should be used for egg foams?metal NEVER plastic because it holds onto fat
    -don't use blender or food processor

          

  173. what commercial agent encourages gluten development?-initial expansion of dough
    - cell size and thickness of dough

          

  174. Pomegranates are a rich source of what?Antioxidants

          

  175. what are the benefits of plant proteins?-rich in fiber, minerals and vitamins
    -no cholesterol and little fat
    -complex carbs
    -phytochemicals
    -low cost and nutrient dense

          

  176. how does do acid and salt affect egg foams?-lowers coagulation temp and can cause curdling and heating too long can cause thinning
    -thicken before adding egg because they have different gelatinization temps and could curdle egg (or temper it)

          

  177. Plaintains are a good source ofvitamins A and D

          

  178. what is optional in yeast breads?technique used with yeast bread to increase volume through continued fermentation

          

  179. how to make best muffins--lumpy batter
    -no overmixing

          

  180. What family does celeriac belong to?prevents separation of water and fat by decreasing fat globule size to increase viscosity and creaminess

          

  181. ultra pasteurization vs UHT pasteurization-kills the bacteria so there is a longer shelf life vs. very high temp, aseptically sealed so no refrigeration necessary for up to 3 months

          

  182. what is self rising flour?has baking powder and salt in it

          

  183. what component of rhubarb is poisonous?-initial expansion of dough
    - cell size and thickness of dough

          

  184. Broccoflower is considered a __________ vegetable.cool season vegetable

          

  185. what does it mean if the gluten window tears?it has been over kneaded or too much flour was added

          

  186. Celeriac is most commonly used as a low-calorie substitute for which other vegetable?potatoes

          

  187. why does dough need to be punched down after the first rising?-increases stability but if added too early peaks won't form
    -denatures proteins so it increases stability so it should be added in foamy stage

          

  188. at high altitudes ______ leavening should be used to avoid ______less
    collapsing

          

  189. best ratio of baking powder____, baking soda ____ and salt per cup of flour for cakes.bp: 1 tsp
    bs: 1/4 tsp
    salt: 1/2 tsp for flavor

          

  190. what causes skin formation on milk? how is it avoided?flavor, regulation of yeast and inhibition of microbes

          

  191. When storing nutritional yeast, it is important to remembera. To store in a cool, dry place
    b. To store in an airtight package
    c. Nutritional value may deteriorate after a year