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  1. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, an agreement to purchase hardware and software from separate sources
  2. a computer-based record of items in storage
  3. guest checks that are made of stiff-paper cards. Hard checks are stored outside the cashier terminal system
  4. an advantage that can be established via product differentiation, use of technology, lower production costs, or use of marker segmentation
  5. part of a system that supports the use of wireless, handheld server terminals. Antenna units relay signals from handheld terminal to a radio base station
  6. a measurement of how far in advance bookings are made
  7. a system output device that is usually capable of displaying both text and graphics in soft copy. Also, these output units may be programmed to various foreground and background color combinations while operating many software applications
  8. charges purchases made by guests that are posted to folios after guests have settled their accounts
  9. also called the profit and loss statement, provides important financial information about the results of operations for a given period of time
  10. optional input device that connects to a POS system register or terminal capable of collecting data stored on a magnetized film strip typically located on the back of a credit card or house account card
  11. a reservation request is formulated into a reservation inquiry by the reservationist. This inquiry typically collects the following data: date of arrival, type and number of rooms requested, number of room nights, room rate code (standard, special, package, etc.), and number of persons in party
  12. constructed for each revenue center and used to track all transactions posted to other folios (individual, master, non-guest, or employee). Control folios provide a basis for double entry accounting and for cross-checking the balances of all electronic folios
  13. details all checks that have been issued but remain outstanding; can
    be used to reconcile checks issued against canceled checks appearing on bank statements
  14. guest checks made of flimsy receipt paper
  15. often abbreviated as "Mb," equal to 1,048,576 bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity
  16. the anticipated number of purchase units withdrawn from inventory between the time an order is placed and the time it is delivered
  17. a CPU containing two microprocessors that permit more effective multitasking of separate applications running simultaneously or of a single dual-core application written to take advantage of multi-threading
  18. interconnected system of networks that share standards and protocols connecting computers around the world
  19. a feature of a call accounting system that provides the capability of connecting with a variety of common carriers
  20. a set of demand-forecasting techniques used to determine whether prices should be raised or lowered and whether a reservation request should be accepted or rejected in order to maximize revenue
  21. monitors outstanding balances of guest accounts
  22. maintains the number of hours each employee works during a pay period and other data that may require special tax calculations, such as sick leave pay, bonus pay, tips, and expense reimbursements
  23. interfaces with a property management system and allows the front desk to control the locking of rooms electronically
  24. translates reservations transactions into as many unique formats as required by diverse network interconnections, thereby allowing users to share data from different reservation systems without having to deal with complex formats, files, and operating systems. The smart switch can access reservation system files and convert the data into easy-to-use formats and files
  25. provides a relative-productivity index for each housekeeper by listing the number of rooms cleaned and the amount of time taken to clean each room
  26. internet technology applied to create a password-protected, restricted-access portion of a website
  27. transfer of fata between different companies using networks such as the internet. As more and more companies are connected to the internet, EDI is an increasingly important mechanism for companies to buy, sell, and trade info
  28. tracks purchases, creditor positions, and the hotel's banking status
  29. participates in the evaluation, selection, and installation of system dardware and is trained in the operation of software applications used throughout the property; provides on-premises systems support and, when necessary, functions as a Network administrator and/or an applications software troubleshooter
  30. an inventory valuation method that assumes that the products that are most recently purchases are used first. The inventory value is assumed to be represented by the cost of items placed in storage the earliest
  31. a report generated by automated food and beverage systems listing the names, employee numbers, hours worked, waged earned, and wages declared for each employee on a given workday; may be useful for determining which employees are approaching overtime pay rates
  32. compares guest checks used in revenue outlets, such as in food and beverage outlets, with source documents to identify discrepancies
  33. lists, by room type, the number of rooms that are available each day (net remaining rooms in each category).
  34. portion of a public website that gives a company's corporate and business partners access to a password-protected portion of the site. A website administrator assigns access parameters for what documents, discussions, and areas can be viewed
  35. any recognized entity that transmits messages or other communication for general use at accepted rates
  36. a configuration of workstations that enables users to share data, programs, and component devices (such as monitors and printers).
  37. handles job codes, employee meals, uniform credits, tips, taxes, and other data that affect the net pay of employees
  38. an account of how much of each item is in storage. Inventory status may be determined by a physical inventory or a perpetual inventory
  39. an electronic data processing practice of generating only those reports that are requested by staff members who will actually use the information
  40. typically deals directly with the public, advertises a central telephone number, provides participating properties with necessary communications equipment, and bills properties for handling reservations
  41. a catering service that typically requires the caterer to be responsible for food and beverage production and service and possibly for providing furnishings, entertainment, decorations, and the like
  42. connection and interaction between hardware, software, and the user
  43. contains data from the front office guest accounting module, such as balances form guest folios, non-guest accounts, bill-to accounts, credit card billings, and others
  44. parts of a POS system keyboard used in combination with preset and price look-up keys to detail preparation instructions (such as rare, medium, and well-done) for food production areas; also used to alter prices according to designated portion sized (such as small, medium, and large).
  45. a form of input that converts spoken data directly into electronic form suitable for processing
  46. the control center of a system. Inside are the circuits and mechanisms that process and store information and send instructions to the other system components
  47. a process that creates the tracks and sectors of a disk on which the system is able to read and write info
  48. a report generated by automated systems listing hour and wage information for each employee who worked during a period specified by management
  49. an inventory system that keeps record up-to-date by tracking all additions to and subtractions from stock
  50. often abbreviated as "K" or "Kb," equal to 1,024 bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity
  51. a special type of forecasting that compares forecasted guest counts with standard menu item recipe costs to yield an index of expense before an actual meal period
  52. the simultaneous purchase and sale of an asset in order to profit from a price difference
  53. a report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems to resolve any discrepancy existing between the sales by major beverage category report and the sales by beverage server report
  54. part of a POS system keyboard used to record the methods with which accounts are settled: by cash, credit card, house account, charge transfer, or other payment
  55. tests the equality of debit and credit account balances
  56. maintains records of all current vendors. Data contained in this file includes: Vendor number, vendor name, contact name, address, telephone number, vendor payment priority, discount terms, discount account number, invoice description, payment date, and year-to-date purchases
  57. part of a wireless system supporting the use of handheld server terminals that relays signals received from antenna units to a digital computer's processing unit
  58. a virtual community of people with similar interests and/or activities
  59. typically located in the lobbies of fully automated hotels, some resemble automatic bank teller machines, while others are unique in design and may possess both video and audio capability
  60. a report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems
    indicating amounts of beverage products sold during a shift; the report enables managers to minimize inventory control problems
  61. generally applies to more than one guest or room and contains a record of transactions that are not posted to individual folios. Master folios are commonly created to provide the kind of billing service required by most groups and conventions
  62. a POS system design that networks terminals to form an integrated system that functions without a large, remote CPU
  63. created for an individual who has in-house charge privileges but is not registered as a guest in the hotel. Individuals with non-guest folios may include health club members, corporate clients, special club members, political leaders, or local celebrities
  64. a configuration in which all e-distribution channels operate from the same database
  65. an action designed to restrict the functionality of a system. For example, network administrators can lock down client desktops so that user can perform only certain operations
  66. liabilities incurred for merchandise, equipment, or other goods and
    services that have been purchases on account
  67. part of a POS system keyboard programmed to maintain the price, descriptor, department, tax, and inventory status of a menu item
  68. memory that reaches beyond a system's basic limits; usually required for advanced multitasking (running several applications simultaneously)
  69. a guestroom vending machine that contains beverage items in see-through closed compartments. The compartment doors may be equipped with fiber optic sensors that record the removal of stored products. Once triggered, the sensors relay the transaction to a built-in microprocessor for recording. Individual guestroom microprocessors are typically cabled to a large CPU, which stores recorded transactions.
  70. a feature of a call accounting system that ensures that callers begin paying for calls only after a predetermined amount of time, thus allowing for wrong numbers
  71. often abbreviated as "Gb," equal to 1,073,741,834 bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity
  72. the turning away of transient guests for lack of rooms due to the acceptance of group business
  73. the selling of products or services over the internet or some other electronic medium. Hospitality e-distribution includes the GDS and internet-based sales channels
  74. when in-room computers are interfaced with a computer-based property management system's guest accounting module, they are able to access folio data and provide guests with a way to approve and settle their accounts
  75. programs that search for binary signatures (patterns) of known viruses that have attached themselves to executable programs. As new viruses are discovered, the signature database has to be updated in order for the anti-virus program to be effective. Vendors generally offer downloads via the web in order to keep clients current
  76. a feature of a call accounting system that charts and monitors telephone traffic.
  77. represents a virtual shopping mall where many buyers and many sellers transact business. Such communities connect customers directly with suppliers to serve a broad array of business segments
  78. used to track "bill to" accounts receivable
  79. the time during which a computer is not functioning due to hardware or system software failure
  80. an electronic locking system that operates through a centralized master code console that is interfaced to every controlled guestroom door
  81. set of computer programs that directly relate to a hotel's front office and back office activities
  82. a keyboard overlay for a POS system terminal that identifies the function performed by each key during a specific meal period
  83. a feature of a call accounting system that immediately identifies the extension from which an outgoing call is placed
  84. the lowest or highest selling price on a menu
  85. a stored value media device containing prepaid deposits for future transactions
  86. provides information on anticipated arrivals, departures, stayovers, and vacancies. This report assists managers in staffing front desk and housekeeping areas.
  87. the process of exploring a database to uncover patterns and relationships relevant to the decision or issue at hand
  88. a systems term referring to an external storage medium, such as a magnetic tape, which stores data in chronological sequence
  89. a report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating the expected beverage income by major beverage category (liquor, beer, wine, etc.)
  90. part of a POS system keyboard that operates like a preset key, except that it requires the user to identify a menu item by its reference code number (up to five digits) rather than by its name or descriptor
  91. a report generated by automated systems listing the names, employee numbers, hours worked, wages earned, and wages declared for each employee on a given workday
  92. present two sets of figures for each balance sheet line item. One set of figures is from the current balance sheet; the other set is from the balance sheet of a previous period. All amounts are reduced to percentages of their account classification
  93. a system is said to "read" when it takes data in for processing, and "write" when it sends processed data out as information. RAM is often described as read/write memory; the user can both read from RAM (retrieve data) and write to RAM (store data)
  94. memory that holds its content without power. A term describing ROM (Read only memory); programs stored in ROM are not lost when the system is turned off or otherwise loses electrical power.
  95. a file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing general data maintained by the labor master file; it is commonly used to verify an employee's hourly rate(s), job codes, or social security number
  96. the electronic circuitry over which power, data, address, and other signals travel
  97. shows labor costs by department or job classifications
  98. external storage media, also called diskettes or floppies, frequently used for shipping data and programs from one location to another. They are made of thin, flexible plastic that is protected by a jacket. The plastic is coated with a magnetized oxide compound designed to hold electronic information. The size of the disk (eight-inch, Five-and-one-quarter inch, or three-and-one-half inch) depends on the type of system used
  99. a collection of related facts and figures designed to serve a specific purpose
  100. an electronic printer, such as a dot matrix printer, that print character by character and line by line
  101. an intermediary between a CRS and e-distribution channels that provides single image inventory information to participating online GDS and IDS entities and communicates reservation information back to the CRS. Also called a switching company.
  102. a user-friendly part of the internet that offers an incredibly rich combination of text, images, sound, animation, and video
  103. sets up billing information. Customer data maintained in this file includes: account code, name of guest or account, address, telephone number, contact person, type of account, credit limit, last payment date, last payment amount, and credit history
  104. under this system, no options are available to the call distribution network. Selection of a route is based on convenience rather than on minimizing expense.
  105. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, the costs of individual system components
  106. a feature of a guest check printer that facilitates order entry; instead of a server manually inputting a guest check's serial number to access the account, a bar code imprinted on the guest check presents the check's serial number in a machine-readable format
  107. maintains a list of accounts with debit and credit balances
  108. help manager determine when products need to be purchased and how much of each product to order. For each purchase item, management sets a minimum quantity below which inventory level should not fall and a maximum quantity above which inventory levels should not rise
  109. specifically designed symbols to diagram the flow of data and documents through an information system
  110. responsible for orchestrating the hardware and the software within the system. It establishes the system's priorities and directs its resources to accomplish desired tasks
  111. an external reservation network
  112. a daily report showing the number and names of guests expected to arrive with reservations, as well as the number and names of guests expected to depart.
  113. a multidimensional database organized for one department or function
  114. sensors that use either infrared light or ultrasonic waves to register the physical occupancy of a room
  115. Analysis of financial statements and operating results through the use of ratios
  116. when part of a POS system terminal, function keys help the user process transactions; they are important for error correction (clear and void), legitimate price alteration (discount), and proper cash handling (no-sale).
  117. controls the flow of info along a network and establishes a gateway to other computer networks
  118. a credit limit predetermined by management
  119. automated programs that convert purchase units into issue and recipe units and track ingredients (by unit and by cost) as they pass through purchasing/feceiving, storing/issuing, and production/service control points
  120. multiplies the number of menu items sold by standard recipe costs to determine a potential food cost amount. When actual recipe cots are known, these figures are multiplied by the number of menu items sold to produce an actual cost figure
  121. a special sequence of bits 9electronic date) representing a single character. A byte is a group of adjacent bits that work, or are operated on as a unit. Theoretically, a byte may be any length, but the most common length for a byte is eight bits
  122. any one of a variety of services that provide fast access to the internet. The most common and cost-effective types of HSIA include DSL and cable modem services. Cable modem services are generally provided by a local cable TV provider and utilize cable facilities to provide fast internet access. Other forms of HSIA include satellite, private data line, and frame relay services.
  123. electronic or hard copy documentation containing essential transactional support data for individually placed and rated telephone calls
  124. network of terminals that are combines with cash registers, bar code readers, optical scanners, and magnetic stripe readers for instantly capturing sales transactions. In restaurants, these systems manage the ordering and delivery of all menu items In one or more restaurants and/or bars
  125. communication network requiring specialty hardware and internet access that enables worldwide connectivity
  126. compiled statistics about aspects of the current information system; useful when communicating information needs of the business to vendors of technology systems
  127. provides a weekly summary of all information reported by relevant
    daily sales reports
  128. shows cash, charge, and paid-out totals by department and serves as a macro-analysis of departmental transactions
  129. designates the internet address of a site usually the site's homepage
  130. provides important information on the financial position of a hospitality business by showing its assets, liabilities, and equity on a particular date
  131. a hardware component of the internet that directs messages between different areas of the internet
  132. often abbreviated as ROM, a portion of the internal memory of a system that holds a permanent record of information that the system needs to use each time it is turned on
  133. internet technology applied to create a privatized, partitioned web-access area. Intranets are generally restricted to company employees, business associates, and private club members
  134. a subscription system linking independent properties. A hotel subscribes to the system's services and takes responsibility for updating the system with accurate room availability data
  135. after the check writing routine, the accounts payable module prints a check register by check number. The check register also may be sorted by vendor or by invoice due date
  136. a data storage device that connects to a USB port
  137. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, visits by vendors to identify important factors regarding specific business operations within a property that may affect system design
  138. in relation to the implementation of a technology system, a property
    operates a legacy system and a new system simultaneously until confident enough to move entirely to the new system
  139. a report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating hourly sales; the report is useful for forecasting sales and scheduling servers and bartenders according to expected demand
  140. the ability of travel agencies to book reservations directly into hotel reservation systems, as well as verify room availability and rates
  141. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, an agreement to purchase hardware and software from the same vendor. In most of these cases, the vendor makes the necessary hardware and software modifications before system implementation
  142. book that indicates the occupancies and vacancies of specific function rooms (including banquet rooms)
  143. a report produced by automated point-of-sale equipment that lists all guest checks (by server) that have not been settles; information may include the guest check number, server identification number, time at which the guest check was opened, number of guests, table number, and guest check total
  144. part of an automated beverage control unit; an electronic mechanism located in a bar dispensing unit that will not permit liquid to flow from the dispensing unit unless there is a glass positioned to catch the liquid below the dispensing head
  145. compares a guest's current folio balance with a credit limit (also called a house limit) that is predetermined by management
  146. in database management software, arranges data files, records, and fields into formations that resemble the structure of the roots of a tree
  147. information from the function book and other files is eventually transcribed on a banquet event order (BEO). A BEO generally serves as a final contract for the client and as a work order for the catering department
  148. a feature of a call accounting system that ensures that a guest is charged only for calls that are answered
  149. compresses data to conserve storage space and requires a unique zip drive to operate
  150. segments each account in the accounts aging file according to the date the charge originated
  151. delineates reservation transactions and commissions payable, by agent.
  152. a system capable of monitoring sales transactions and determining
    inventory replenishment quantities for in-room vending sales. Two popular in-room beverage service systems are nonautomated honor bars and microprocessor-based vending machines
  153. compiles weekly totals summarizing the revenue earned by food and beverage departments (or categories)
  154. automates several internal control and accounting functions
  155. lists general ledger accounts by type of account including account number and account title
  156. a systems term referring to a set of programs that instructs or controls the operation of the system's hardware components. Software programs tell the system what to do, how to do it, and when to do it
  157. a POS system function that automatically sends orders to the kitchen simultaneously based on course
  158. the last day on which it is possible for a lodging operation to take advantage of a cash payment discount that may be offered by a specific vendor
  159. wireless server terminal that performs most of the functions of a precheck terminal and enables servers to enter orders at tableside
  160. provide management with complete control over cash disbursements before engaging the automatic check writing feature of the accounts payable module
  161. presents summary accounts payable information
  162. Radio frequency identification unit capable of emitting a broadcast signal used to locate passive RFID tags; useful for contactless payment transactions
  163. including sub-recipes as ingredients for a particular standard recipe. This enables the computer-based restaurant management system to maintain a record for a particular menu item that requires an unusually large number of ingredients
  164. universal serial bus; a peripheral device connector that is much faster than parallel or serial ports
  165. a situation in which the housekeeping department's description of a room's status differs from the room status information that guides front desk employees in assigning rooms to guests
  166. provides a hard copy audit trail of payments made to vendors. This report also identifies checks that have not yet been accounted for
  167. maintains basic inventory data, such as item name, item description (brief), inventory code number, storeroom location code, item purchase unit, purchase unit price, item issue unit, product group code, vendor identification number, order lead time, minimum-maximum stock levels, and date of last purchase
  168. refers to simultaneous processing. For example, real time capability enables a reservationist to receive necessary feedback from the system immediately in order to respond to a caller's requests during a telephone call
  169. a report generated by automated food and beverage systems enabling managers to measure the sales performance of individual menu items by department or product category within certain time intervals
  170. contains several columns listing invoices by vendor number, vendor name, invoice number, and invoice date
  171. can be part of an automated beverage control unit; relays a signal to the order entry device
  172. a display screen that may rest atop, inside, or alongside the POS device for the customers' viewing
  173. part of a call accounting system that maintains data necessary for generating reports for management
  174. an individual already employed within a specific department who receives extensive training in the operation of hardware, software applications, and network components, and afterward conducts training sessions for others and provides some technical support services
  175. monitors the calculation and printing of bank checks for payments of selected invoices
  176. the state of a hotel room in terms of its availability and cleanliness. Information about current room availability is essential in order for front desk employees to properly assign rooms to guests at check-in. The current status of a room is crucial to the immediate, short-run selling position of that room
  177. all aspects of business and market processes enabled by the internet and web-based technologies
  178. the smallest unit of electronic data
  179. lists the names of accounts in a sequence that parallels the order of their appearance on the financial statements and general ledger
  180. a collection of database records and fields
  181. front office application software that maintains guest accounts electronically. The guest accounting module increases the hotel's control over guest accounts and significantly modifies the night audit routine
  182. purchasing goods and service over the internet
  183. often abbreviated as "Tb," equal to one trillion bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity
  184. set of file download commands embedded within the hypertext markup language used to place text, graphics, video, and other information displays on the World Wide Web
  185. provides the rooms department with a summary of current house information; may list present check-ins, number of occupied rooms, names of guests who have reservations but are not yet registered, and the number of rooms available for sale; may also profile room status, rooms revenue, and average room rate
  186. a report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating the amounts due in the form of cash, credit card vouchers, and house account charges for sales made during a shift
  187. a database structure in which the data files are formatted as rectangular tables of rows and columns and are similar in appearance to electronic spreadsheets
  188. a hotel property selected to receive reservation requests after chain properties have exhausted room availabilities in a geographic region
  189. a systems term referring to the physical equipment of a system. Hardware is visible, movable, and easy to identify. In order to have a system, three hardware components are required: an input/output component, a central processing unit (CPU), and an external storage device
  190. enhances management's control over purchasing, ordering, and receiving practices
  191. balances the total of checks removed from the outstanding checks list with the total of cleared checks appearing on the bank statement
  192. a report generated by automated systems providing an in-depth analysis of sales transactions and actual labor hours during selected time periods
  193. smart cards are made of plastic and are about the same size as credit cards. Microchips embedded in them store information that can be accessed by a specially designed card reader. Smart cards can store information in several files that are acceded for different functions, such as a person's vital health statistics, dietary restrictions, credit card number, and bank balance. Information stores in smart cards is secured by a personal identification number (PIN) that must be used to access files
  194. internet-based services providing consumers the ability to book airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations
  195. a hardware component of the internet that provides a means for two incompatible networks to communicate. A gateway simply converts the sending system's request into a format that the receiving system can understand
  196. lists the names of guests who have checked out and their room numbers, billing, addresses, and folio numbers
  197. keys on a POS system terminal dedicated to specific functions programmed by the manufacturer
  198. Contains its own input/output component and may even possess a small storage (memory) capacity, but usually does not contain its own central processing unit
  199. a systems term used to describe random access memory (RAM). When the memory device loses electrical power, or is deliberately turned off, all user data stored in RAM is lost. In order to save data stored in RAM for future use, the user must instruct the system to save it on a nonvolatile storage device
  200. part of an automated beverage control unit preventing the system from fulfilling beverage orders unless they are first recorded to an open guest check
  201. a method of valuing inventory; the products in storage areas are valued at the level of the most recently purchases items to be placed in inventory
  202. maintains a complete list of all invoices currently outstanding and payable
  203. selling products or services over the internet or some other electronic medium. Hospitality electronic distribution includes the GDS and internet-based sales channels
  204. a report generated by automated food and beverage systems that enables management to measure the sales performance of individual menu items by department or product category over various time intervals
  205. an inventory system in which property employees periodically
    observe and count items in storage
  206. a printed paper copy of system-processed info
  207. guides guestroom booking activity by providing the sales office with the maximum number of guestrooms it can sell to groups on a given day. The remaining guestrooms (and any unsold guestrooms allotted to groups) are available for individual guests
  208. ranks room types by percentage of occupancy and/or by percentage of total rooms revenue
  209. a hardware component of the internet that connects two or more networks that use the same data transfer protocol. A bridge makes attached networks appear to operate as a single network. The purposes of a bridge are to extend network capabilities and to isolate network traffic
  210. a report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating how much of each beverage product was sold during a shift; the report is useful for monitoring product sales trends and adjusting par inventory levels when necessary
  211. an electronic nonimpact printer that works by spraying a minute and finely controlled jet of ink onto paper. The ink (Carbon) is electrically charged as it is sprayed onto the paper. Once charged, the jet of ink can be moved around by electric fields in much the same way that an electron beam is used to produce a picture on a television set.
  212. a report generated by automated food and beverage systems providing an in-depth analysis of sales transactions by individual server
  213. contains accounts receivable data that can be formatted into a variety of aging reports that segment accounts in the file according to the date the charge originated
  214. a high-speed electronic nonimpact printer similar in appearance to desktop photocopying machines. While other printers print one character at a time, laser technology enables these devices to print an entire page all at once
  215. a local area network that uses a wireless transmission protocol
  216. differences between a physical count of an item and the balance maintained by the perpetual inventory system
  217. a vacant room that is believed to be occupied because the room rack slip or registration card was not removed from the rack when the guest departed (in nonautomated hotels) or because of room status report discrepancies or errors (in automated hotels).
  218. Part of a POS system terminal enabling the operator to review and edit transaction entries
  219. the rate at which group business is being booked
  220. consolidates electronic communications between a hospitality establishment and a credit card authorization center. Power platforms can capture credit card authorizations in three seconds or less. A POS power platform connects all POS terminals to a single processor for transaction settlement
  221. an electronic data processing term referring to the time that elapses between data input and information output
  222. balancing the total of checks removed from the outstanding checks list with the total of cleared checks appearing on the bank statement
  223. the additional memory capacity that resides outside the system's basic memory. It can be accessed in revolving blocks, and is available as add-on boards that are inserted into one of the system's expansion slots
  224. a "one buyer, many sellers" approach. Buyers purchase Web-based services or use self-supported systems to buy from approved vendors electronically
  225. debit cards differ from credit cards in that the cardholder must deposit money in order to give the card value. The cardholder deposits money in advance of purchases through a debit card center or an electronic debit posting machine; as purchases are made, the balance on the debit card falls
  226. lists all invoices selected for payment and the corresponding cash requirement totals; prepared by vendor number, vendor name, due date, item, or group code and typically including vendor number, vender name, invoice number, due date, balance due, and amount to be paid
  227. backup power used when the electrical power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide enough battery power to power down the computer in an orderly manner. Sophisticated systems tied to electrical generators can provide power for days
  228. an e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds its own markup factor and sells the rooms to consumers. Also called the markup model.
  229. the process of using significant guest information to understand an individual guest, contact that guest, and sell additional hospitality products and services that directly meet the guest's needs
  230. the ratio of actual room revenue to potential room revenue
  231. part of an automated beverage control unit that transports beverage item ingredients from storage areas to dispensing units
  232. the detailed facts or figures contained in database records
  233. used to track employee purchases, compute discounts, monitor expense account activity, and separate authorized business charges from personal expenditures
  234. the process of switching from the current information system to the capabilities of a new system
  235. lists gross amount invoiced, discounts taken, number of invoices, and other vendor data
  236. subtractions from gross pay that are usually voluntary and depend on the types of benefits available from the employer
  237. a system input device capable of translating a page of text into a machine-readable format by converting the images on a page into digitized information that the system can recognize
  238. presents guest, non-guest, and credit card activity by beginning balance, cumulative charges, and credits
  239. part of a POS system that coordinates communications between cashier or precheck terminals and workstation printers or kitchen monitors, while ensuring that servers need enter orders only once. Also called a printer controller
  240. parts of a POS system keyboard that can be programmed by users to meet specific needs of their restaurant operations
  241. a cycle of events identifies as input, process, and output that transforms raw facts and isolated figures into useful information
  242. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, costs associated with supplies, customized forms, training, overtime pay, and data conversion normally not included in the system purchase price
  243. stand-alone technology systems that may be linked to a hotel's PMS; the formats and languages that define data that one system is capable of delivering to another
  244. a POS device that is connected to a cash drawer
  245. automated information devices in public hotel areas that allow guests to inquire about in-house events and local activities
  246. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, these costs include taxes, insurance, shipping, and other costs that may result from modifying the property's air conditioning, electrical, and telephone wiring systems; establishing contingency programs; installing uninterruptible power sources; and maintaining an inventory of spare parts
  247. a feature of an energy management system that maintains usage levels below a given limit by shedding energy loads in an orderly fashion
  248. a POS on-board printing device that is sometimes called a slip printer. A sophisticated guest check printer may be equipped with an automatic form number reader and may possess automatic slip feed capabilities.
  249. a report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating the total sales of each beverage server during a shift
  250. a small manual input unit used in place of, or with, a keyboard or touchscreen. Designed to fit comfortably under a user's hand, it controls the cursor or pointer on the display screen. It can also be used to choose commands, move text and icons, and perform a number of other operations
  251. tracks accounts receivable, accounts payable, cash, and adjusting entries
  252. summarizes all sales revenue activity for a day. Revenue is itemized by the following categories: net sales, tax, number of guest checks, number of covers, dollars per check, dollars per cover, sales category, and day-part totals. Affected general ledger accounts are listed and associated food costs and sales percentage statistics are noted
  253. a file maintained by sophisticated POS systems that maintains current data for all open guest checks; it is accessed to monitor items on a guest check, add items to a guest check after initial order entry, and close a guest check at the time of settlement
  254. facts or figures to be processed into useful information. Three types of data are alpha data, numeric data, and alphanumeric data.
  255. a system designed to provide managers with the necessary information needed to plan, organize, staff, direct, and control operations
  256. a code based on only two digits, zero and one. This is the form of data a computer can handle with the greatest ease because electronic circuits have two natural states: "on," usually represented by the binary digit one; and "off," represented by the binary digit zero
  257. electronically monitors guestroom temperatures
  258. technology that establishes a communication process in which data are transferred from related systems; processed according to pre-established decision-making rules, financial models, or other analytical methods; and stored in information formats tailored to the needs of individual managers
  259. front office application software that maintains up-to-date information regarding the status of rooms, assists in the assignment of rooms during registration, and helps coordinate many guest services
  260. contains the specific characteristics of purchased items. Purveyors are asked to quote prices for products that meet or exceed stated specifications
  261. projects future revenue by multiplying predicted occupancies by current house rates
  262. software that reads indexed websites and creates lists and links to sites that match a user's inquiry
  263. a file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing data for all meal periods and menu items sold. Important data maintained by this file may include: Identification number, descriptor, recipe code number, selling price, ingredient quantities for inventory reporting, and sales totals
  264. the reservationist's initial inquiry procedures create a reservation record that initiates the hotel guest cycle. Reservation record identify guest and their needs before guests arrive at the property; such record enable the hotel to personalize guest service and appropriately schedule needed personnel
  265. lists details of all items received on a given day
  266. the removal of unused and therefore unnecessary group rooms from a group block
  267. electronic networks used by travel agents and some internet-based distribution channels to make airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations.
  268. contains important data on each purchases ingredient, such as ingredient code number, ingredient description, purchase unit, purchase unit cost, issue unit, issue unit cost, recipe unit, and recipe unit cost
  269. a collection of database fields
  270. a unit of electrical frequency equal to one billion cycles per second; used to measure the speed of a system's central processing unit
  271. a video display unit capable of displaying several orders on a single screen.
  272. a POS feature that enables the tracking of individual item sales by perpetually monitoring inventory
  273. in relation to the implementation of a technology system, management chooses a date on which there is to be a complete switch from the current system to a new system. Also called going cold turkey
  274. the principal accounting ledger containing all of the balance sheet and statement of income accounts
  275. a feature of an active call accounting system that directs calls over the least-cost available line, regardless of carrier
  276. shows relationships between amount sold by sales category and day-parts defined by management; enables management to view at a glance which menu items sell and when they sell
  277. indicates the current status of rooms according to housekeeping designations, such as on-change, out-of-order, and clean and ready for inspection
  278. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, a contract in which a business agrees to purchase hardware components and software packages from a single source, and this single source takes full responsibility for the performance of the system. An OEM contract generally involves purchasing turnkey packages
  279. a remote printing device of a POS system that produces a continuous detailed record of all transactions entered anywhere in the system. Hard copy is produced on narrow register tape (usually 20 columns wide) and provides management with a thorough system audit
  280. enables a hotel to take control over local and long-distance services and apply a markup to switchboard operations. Call accounting systems are capable of placing and pricing local and long-distance calls
  281. a characteristic of an external storage medium (such as magnetic disks) permitting data to be stored in any available location on the disk. Since the tracks and sectors of the disk are numbered, the system allows a user to access stored data quickly and easily
  282. front office application software that enables a hotel to rapidly process room requests and generate timely and accurate rooms, revenue, and forecasting reports
  283. alternative addresses for a company's website that all point to the same main web page
  284. when interfaced with a hotel property management system, an in-room movie system provides guestroom entertainment through a dedicated television pay channel
  285. a flashing marker on a display screen that indicates where the next character to be entered will appear
  286. an inventory valuation method that considers the quantity of products purchased at different unit costs. This method "weights" the prices to be average based on the quantity of products in storage at each price
  287. also called a refusal report, tracks the number of room nights refused because rooms were not available for sale. This report is especially helpful to hotels with expansion plans
  288. a daily report showing the number of guests expected to depart, the number of stayovers (the difference between arrivals and departures), and the names of guests associated with each transaction
  289. a file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing one record for each employee; it typically maintains the following data: employee name, employee number, social security number, authorized job codes, and corresponding hourly wage rates. This file may also contain data required to produce labor reports for management
  290. remote printing devices usually placed at kitchen preparation areas and service bars
  291. a feature of an energy management system that turns of equipment on a sequential basis for a given period of time each hour
  292. a hotel chain's reservation system in which all participating properties are contractually related. Each property is represented in the computer system database and is required to provide room availability data to the reservations center on a timely basis.
  293. a terminal that contains a unique adaptation of a screen and a special Microprocessor to control it. The self-contained microprocessor displays data on areas of the screen that are sensitive to touch. Touching one of the sensitized areas produces an electronic charge that is translated into digital signals telling what area was touched for transmission to the microprocessor. This signal also instructs the microprocessor to display the next screen
  294. individual component parts of a data mart
  295. often abbreviated as RAM, a portion of a system's internal memory that holds a temporary version of the programs or data that users are processing
  296. an examination of networks and computer systems to determine an organization's vulnerability to criminal invasion (hackers, viruses, arson, etc.), natural disasters (fire, tornadoes, earthquakes, etc.), and other threats
  297. a report generated by automated food and beverage systems providing managers with a complete statement of daily or monthly sales (by shift or broken down by food and beverage categories) and a listing of settlement methods
  298. generally, the first few letters of a guest's last name. An identification code enables the guest accounting module to process a charge to the correct folio when two separate accounts exist under the same room number
  299. the value of items in inventory
  300. external storage devices that are much faster to use and store far greater amounts of info than magnetic disks. Hard disks are permanently online to the system
  301. a feature of a guest check printer that prevents overprinting of items and amounts on guest checks
  302. a menu management application for evaluating decisions regarding current and future menu pricing, design, and contents. This application requires that management focus on the number of dollars a menu contributes to profit and not simply monitor cost percentages
  303. signals to management the specific rooms whose status must be investigated to avoid sleepers. The report notes any variances between front desk and housekeeping room status updates
  304. shows transfers to non-guest (city) ledgers from guest accounts
  305. performs many of the same functions performed by the night audit routine in nonautomated properties. System updates are run daily to allow for report production, system file reorganization, and system maintenance, and to provide an end-of-day time frame
  306. decision support software that allows the user to quickly analyze information that has been summarized into multidimensional views and hierarchies
  307. addresses the technology needs of multi-property hospitality organizations, such as hotel and restaurant chains as well age management companies
  308. in relation to the purchase of a technology system, a three-part document prepared by management. The first section orients the vendor to management's business operation; the second section establishes bidding requirements for vendor proposals; and the third section deals specifically with user application requirements
  309. a daily report showing the number of guests and the names of the guests expected to arrive with reservations
  310. generally, the serial number of a departmental source document
  311. contains data for determining the cost of goods sold and the replacement cost of items listed in the inventory master file
  312. involves placing an order directly with a supplier over the internet. In this many-to-one environment (many buyers, one seller), the buyer generally accesses the supplier's own website to do research and make purchases
  313. a unit of electrical frequency equal to one million cycles per second; used to measure the speed of a system's central processing unit
  314. the art of applying technology to produce a feature or product that is unique
  315. twelve consecutive months that define a business year
  316. recipes that are included as ingredients within a standard recipe record
  317. in a perpetual inventory system, keeps a running balance of the quantity of issued/stored items
  318. home delivery catering services
  319. an electronic locking system that operates as a stand-alone unit. Each door has its own microprocessor that contains a unique, predetermined sequence of codes. A master console at the front desk contains a record of all code sequences for each door
  320. a category of electronic printers that includes thermal, ink jet, and laser printers
  321. a POS system terminal without a cash drawer; usually used to enter orders, although it is sometimes used to settle non-cash payments
  322. typically involves stocks of items that are held in dry and cold storage areas within a guestroom. Changes in the bar's beginning inventory level are noted either by housekeeping room attendants during their normal rounds or by designated room service employees
  323. a database designed to support decision-making in an organization; structured to support a variety of analyses, including elaborate queries on large amounts of data that can require extensive searching
  324. subtractions from gross pay for income and Social Security taxes
  325. gives mathematical expression to a significant relationship between two figures. It is calculated by dividing one figure by the other
  326. output on a monitor that cannot be handled by the operator or be removed from the system
  327. a method for keeping a network secure from intruders. It can be a single router or a combination of routers and servers, each performing some type of firewall processing
  328. provides a daily summary of reservation records that were created, modified, or canceled
  329. a property management system interface that enables a hotel to take control over local and long-distance telephone services and to apply a markup to switchboard operations
  330. device in a wireless network capable of receiving and transmitting signals
  331. used to track guest folio balances that are settled to a credit card company
  332. term used to describe off-premises, as opposed to on-site, automation
  333. a method of inventory valuation. Values inventory only in relation to actual costs of items stored. The value of stored products is, then, the value represented by the sum of individual unit costs
  334. in relation to automated food and beverage systems, reports that detail sales activity for all assigned server sales records; may be generated for each server and cashier in terms of guest count, total sales, and average sales
  335. a subsidiary ledger listing accounts receivable balances of guests who have checked out, and other receivables as well
  336. assigned to an in-house guest for the purpose of charting the guest's
    financial transactions with the hotel
  337. a reservation network that handles more than one product line. Intersell Agencies typically handle reservations for airline flights, car rentals, and hotel rooms.
  338. an e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds a standard markup factor and sells the rooms to consumer. Also called the commission model
  339. depicts the revenue history and use of each room by room type. This
    report is especially useful to those properties employing an automatic room assignment function
  340. records time in and time out for employees
  341. obligations owed an organization from sales made on credit
  342. a printed voucher, usually serially numbered for internal-control purposes, from a revenue-producing department showing an amount that is charged to a folio
  343. used to assign floor and room numbers to room attendants and to list room status. This report may also provide space for special messages from the housekeeping department
  344. a collective statistic that effectively combines the potential average single and double rates, multiple occupancy percentage, and rate spread to produce the average rate that would apply if all rooms were sold at their full rack rates
  345. on-board printing devices that produce hard copy on narrow register tape
  346. summarizes rooms committed (booked or blocked) by future date
  1. a Hard disks
  2. b Sub-recipe
  3. c Chart of accounts file
  4. d Rooms history report
  5. e Guest check sensor
  6. f Product differentiation
  7. g firewall
  8. h Displacement
  9. i Parallel conversion
  10. j Guest check printer
  11. k Voice over internet protocol (VoIP)
  12. l Throughput
  13. m Conversion tables
  14. n System update
  15. o global distribution system (GDS)
  16. p e-marketplace e-procurement model
  17. q Master folio
  18. r Automatic identification of outward dialing
  19. s Booking lead time
  20. t Inventory module
  21. u Sales by beverage server report
  22. v Revenue forecast report
  23. w Database fields
  24. x Access point
  25. y expected departures list
  26. z Cursor
  27. aa Call accounting system (CAS)
  28. ab Customer master file
  29. ac Function book
  30. ad Operator monitor
  31. ae Management information system (MIS)
  32. af Voice recognition
  33. ag USB drive
  34. ah Vendor status report
  35. ai Timeout feature
  36. aj Megabyte
  37. ak Electronic locking system (ELS)
  38. al Sales and payment summary report
  39. am Gigahertz (GHz)
  40. an Single image inventory
  41. ao Reservation transaction record
  42. ap Least-cost routing
  43. aq Gigabyte
  44. ar Precheck terminal
  45. as Accounts payable aging report
  46. at Volatile memory
  47. au Labor cost report
  48. av Financial reporting module
  49. aw Laser printer
  50. ax Micro-fitted electronic locking system
  51. ay Weighted average
  52. az Microprocessor-based beverage device
  53. ba Accounts payable module
  54. bb Room status
  55. bc Proxy URLs
  56. bd Automated time-clock system
  57. be Demand control
  58. bf Bridge
  59. bg PC-based register configuration (PCR)
  60. bh Distribution service provider (DSP)
  61. bi Guestroom control book
  62. bj Rooms management module
  63. bk Finished product catering
  64. bl Intranet
  65. bm Intersell agency
  66. bn Sales by time of day report
  67. bo Reference code
  68. bp Function keys
  69. bq Trial balance file
  70. br Menu board
  71. bs Ratio analysis
  72. bt Banquet event order (BEO)
  73. bu Self-check-in/self-check-out terminals
  74. bv Handheld terminal
  75. bw Nonaffiliate reservation system
  76. bx Automatic form number reader (AFNR)
  77. by Settlement methods report
  78. bz Perpetual inventory system
  79. ca Daily sales report
  80. cb Arbitrage
  81. cc Gift card
  82. cd daily receiving report
  83. ce Central processing unit (CPU)
  84. cf Uniform resource locator (URL)
  85. cg Direct cutover conversion
  86. ch Outstanding guest checks report
  87. ci Passive call accounting system
  88. cj Payroll accounting module
  89. ck City ledger
  90. cl Zip disk
  91. cm Gateway
  92. cn Other equipment manufacturer (OEM) contract
  93. co Cashier terminal
  94. cp Marketing category report
  95. cq Call record
  96. cr e-procurement
  97. cs Accounts receivable module
  98. ct Daily labor report
  99. cu Inventory status file
  100. cv Nonautomated honor bar
  101. cw Rooms status report
  102. cx Point-of-sale terminal
  103. cy Sales mix by major product report
  104. cz Reservation inquiry
  105. da Hard checks
  106. db Point-of-sales (POS) system
  107. dc Rooms allotment report
  108. dd Revenue center report
  109. de electronic distribution
  110. df Indirect costs
  111. dg Customer relationship management (CRM)
  112. dh General ledger
  113. di Scanner
  114. dj Expanded memory
  115. dk Smart card
  116. dl Preset key
  117. dm Touchscreen terminal
  118. dn Terabyte
  119. do In-room check-out
  120. dp Guest information services
  121. dq Menu item file
  122. dr Streamlining
  123. ds Nonimpact printer
  124. dt Sales category analysis report
  125. du WiFi network
  126. dv Inventory file
  127. dw Late charges
  128. dx Hardware
  129. dy Labor master report
  130. dz Wholesaler model
  131. ea extranet
  132. eb Property management system (PMS)
  133. ec RFID reader
  134. ed Kilobyte
  135. ee Seamless integration
  136. ef Sequential access medium
  137. eg House limit
  138. eh Internet
  139. ei Employee folio
  140. ej Price point
  141. ek Affiliate reservation system
  142. el Data
  143. em Precosting
  144. en World wide web (www)
  145. eo Guest accounting module
  146. ep sell-side e-procurement model
  147. eq Hard keys
  148. er Permanent folio
  149. es Magnetic strip reader
  150. et Rooms availability report
  151. eu Vendor activity report
  152. ev Central reservation system
  153. ew Individual folio
  154. ex Online social network (OSN)
  155. ey Workstation printer
  156. ez Yield statistic
  157. fa Automatic coursing
  158. fb Impact printer
  159. fc Fiscal year
  160. fd In-room vending system
  161. fe Ratio
  162. ff Random access memory (RAM)
  163. fg Extended memory
  164. fh Software
  165. fi Merchant model
  166. fj Last in, first out (LIFO)
  167. fk Buy-side e-procurement model
  168. fl Actual departures report
  169. fm Bus system
  170. fn Rooms discrepancy report
  171. fo Megahertz (MHz)
  172. fp Real time capability
  173. fq Group booking pace
  174. fr Trial balance
  175. fs Menu engineering
  176. ft Nonvolatile memory
  177. fu Inventory status
  178. fv Actual cost
  179. fw Reservation module
  180. fx Housekeeper productivity report
  181. fy Inventory valuation file
  182. fz Request for proposal
  183. ga Data cube
  184. gb enterprise system
  185. gc Search engine
  186. gd Potential average rate
  187. ge Activity report
  188. gf Competitive advantage
  189. gg Outstanding checks list
  190. gh Sales analysis report
  191. gi Ledger summary report
  192. gj Database records
  193. gk Hidden costs
  194. gl Source document
  195. gm expected arrivals list
  196. gn Anti-virus software
  197. go Random access medium
  198. gp Check reconciliation
  199. gq security audit
  200. gr Station message detail record
  201. gs Rooms productivity report
  202. gt Soft keys
  203. gu Modifier keys
  204. gv Byte
  205. gw Relational database structure
  206. gx Antenna units
  207. gy Soft copy
  208. gz Property management system interfaces
  209. ha Settlement keys
  210. hb Turnaway report
  211. hc First in, first out (FIFO)
  212. hd Recipe chaining
  213. he Internet distribution system (IDS)
  214. hf Router
  215. hg Server
  216. hh Cash requirements report
  217. hi Active call accounting system
  218. hj Network
  219. hk Soft checks
  220. hl Site survey
  221. hm Database
  222. hn Data mart
  223. ho Wash factor
  224. hp Central reservation office
  225. hq Mouse
  226. hr Product usage report
  227. hs Override options
  228. ht Hard-wired electronic locking system
  229. hu Accounts receivable
  230. hv Debit card
  231. hw Direct costs
  232. hx Monitor
  233. hy Payment discount date
  234. hz Non-guest folio
  235. ia Deductions
  236. ib Withholdings
  237. ic Journal printer
  238. id Aging of accounts receivable schedule
  239. ie Hard copy
  240. if e-commerce
  241. ig Monthly check register
  242. ih Automatic route selection
  243. ii Formatting
  244. ij Receipt printer
  245. ik Database files
  246. il Weekly labor report
  247. im Productivity reports
  248. in Binary code
  249. io Overrun facility
  250. ip Labor master file
  251. iq Automatic slip feed (ASF)
  252. ir Online analytical processing (OLAP)
  253. is Postcosting
  254. it uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
  255. iu Period labor report
  256. iv Semi-permanent folio
  257. iw lock down
  258. ix Daily transactions report
  259. iy Reconciliation audit report
  260. iz Read-only memory (ROM)
  261. ja Data processing
  262. jb Magnetic disks
  263. jc Transfer report
  264. jd lead-time quantity
  265. je Property profile
  266. jf Sales by major beverage category report
  267. jg Accounts payable
  268. jh Kitchen display unit (KDU)
  269. ji Weekly sales spreadsheet
  270. jj Duty cycling
  271. jk Property system manager
  272. jl high-speed internet access (HSIA)
  273. jm Identification code
  274. jn Invoice register file
  275. jo Flowchart
  276. jp Control folio
  277. jq Bid specification file
  278. jr Data mining
  279. js Delivery network
  280. jt Hierarchical database structure
  281. ju Physical inventory system
  282. jv Off-premises catering service
  283. jw Smart switch
  284. jx HyperText transfer protocol (http)
  285. jy Interface
  286. jz Open check file
  287. ka Department systems supervisor
  288. kb Empty bottle sensor
  289. kc Network controller
  290. kd Power platform
  291. ke USB
  292. kf Credit monitoring routine
  293. kg Outstanding checks report
  294. kh Revenue management
  295. ki Operating system
  296. kj Chart of accounts
  297. kk Room status discrepancy
  298. kl Accounts aging file
  299. km Radio base station
  300. kn Common carrier
  301. ko Expected arrival/departure report
  302. kp Data warehouse
  303. kq Glass sensor
  304. kr Energy management system (EMS)
  305. ks Bit
  306. kt minimum/maximum inventory levels
  307. ku System conversion
  308. kv Single-vendor contract
  309. kw Inventory valuation
  310. kx In-room entertainment system
  311. ky e-distribution
  312. kz Check register file
  313. la Ingredient file
  314. lb Ink jet printer
  315. lc Reservation record
  316. ld electronic data interchange (EDI)
  317. le Commission agent report
  318. lf Customer display unit
  319. lg Read/write
  320. lh Purchasing module
  321. li Guest check control report
  322. lj Cloud computing
  323. lk downtime
  324. ll Ringback mechanism
  325. lm Sleeper
  326. ln Common-size balance sheets
  327. lo Room occupancy sensors
  328. lp Traffic transaction file
  329. lq Check register
  330. lr Registration progress report
  331. ls Housekeeper assignment report
  332. lt Multi-vendor contract
  333. lu Rooms activity forecast
  334. lv City ledger file
  335. lw Balance sheet
  336. lx Vendor master file
  337. ly Net sales by time of day report
  338. lz Inventory master file
  339. ma Inventory variance
  340. mb Dual-core processing
  341. mc Price look-up (PLU) key
  342. md Count down function
  343. me Income statement
  344. mf Payroll register file
  345. mg Information technology (IT)
  346. mh Extranet