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352 True/False questions

  1. Radio base stationpart of a wireless system supporting the use of handheld server terminals that relays signals received from antenna units to a digital computer's processing unit

          

  2. Expected arrival/departure reporta daily report showing the number and names of guests expected to arrive with reservations, as well as the number and names of guests expected to depart.

          

  3. Sales and payment summary reporta report generated by automated food and beverage systems that enables management to measure the sales performance of individual menu items by department or product category over various time intervals

          

  4. Data marta multidimensional database organized for one department or function

          

  5. PC-based register configuration (PCR)the art of applying technology to produce a feature or product that is unique

          

  6. Data warehousea collection of database records and fields

          

  7. Megabyteoften abbreviated as "Tb," equal to one trillion bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity

          

  8. Actual costa method of inventory valuation. Values inventory only in relation to actual costs of items stored. The value of stored products is, then, the value represented by the sum of individual unit costs

          

  9. Room status discrepancyindicates the current status of rooms according to housekeeping designations, such as on-change, out-of-order, and clean and ready for inspection

          

  10. Sales category analysis reportshows relationships between amount sold by sales category and day-parts defined by management; enables management to view at a glance which menu items sell and when they sell

          

  11. Property management system interfacesa property management system interface that enables a hotel to take control over local and long-distance telephone services and to apply a markup to switchboard operations

          

  12. Online analytical processing (OLAP)the control center of a system. Inside are the circuits and mechanisms that process and store information and send instructions to the other system components

          

  13. Room statusin relation to the purchase of a technology system, the costs of individual system components

          

  14. Soft keysparts of a POS system keyboard that can be programmed by users to meet specific needs of their restaurant operations

          

  15. Ingredient filecontains important data on each purchases ingredient, such as ingredient code number, ingredient description, purchase unit, purchase unit cost, issue unit, issue unit cost, recipe unit, and recipe unit cost

          

  16. Journal printera system is said to "read" when it takes data in for processing, and "write" when it sends processed data out as information. RAM is often described as read/write memory; the user can both read from RAM (retrieve data) and write to RAM (store data)

          

  17. Magnetic strip readera file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing data for all meal periods and menu items sold. Important data maintained by this file may include: Identification number, descriptor, recipe code number, selling price, ingredient quantities for inventory reporting, and sales totals

          

  18. Perpetual inventory systeman external reservation network

          

  19. Random access mediuma characteristic of an external storage medium (such as magnetic disks) permitting data to be stored in any available location on the disk. Since the tracks and sectors of the disk are numbered, the system allows a user to access stored data quickly and easily

          

  20. Automatic coursinga POS system function that automatically sends orders to the kitchen simultaneously based on course

          

  21. Accounts receivable modulemonitors outstanding balances of guest accounts

          

  22. Hidden costsa method of inventory valuation. Values inventory only in relation to actual costs of items stored. The value of stored products is, then, the value represented by the sum of individual unit costs

          

  23. Online social network (OSN)a virtual community of people with similar interests and/or activities

          

  24. Withholdingssubtractions from gross pay for income and Social Security taxes

          

  25. Rooms availability reporta report generated by automated systems listing the names, employee numbers, hours worked, wages earned, and wages declared for each employee on a given workday

          

  26. Preset keypart of a POS system keyboard programmed to maintain the price, descriptor, department, tax, and inventory status of a menu item

          

  27. Accounts payable aging reportcontains several columns listing invoices by vendor number, vendor name, invoice number, and invoice date

          

  28. Database recordsshows transfers to non-guest (city) ledgers from guest accounts

          

  29. Reference codean e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds its own markup factor and sells the rooms to consumers. Also called the markup model.

          

  30. Intersell agencya reservation network that handles more than one product line. Intersell Agencies typically handle reservations for airline flights, car rentals, and hotel rooms.

          

  31. General ledgerconstructed for each revenue center and used to track all transactions posted to other folios (individual, master, non-guest, or employee). Control folios provide a basis for double entry accounting and for cross-checking the balances of all electronic folios

          

  32. Identification codea code based on only two digits, zero and one. This is the form of data a computer can handle with the greatest ease because electronic circuits have two natural states: "on," usually represented by the binary digit one; and "off," represented by the binary digit zero

          

  33. Timeout featurean electronic printer, such as a dot matrix printer, that print character by character and line by line

          

  34. e-marketplace e-procurement modelan e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds its own markup factor and sells the rooms to consumers. Also called the markup model.

          

  35. Point-of-sale terminalwireless server terminal that performs most of the functions of a precheck terminal and enables servers to enter orders at tableside

          

  36. Site surveycharges purchases made by guests that are posted to folios after guests have settled their accounts

          

  37. Database fieldsa collection of database records and fields

          

  38. Gift carda stored value media device containing prepaid deposits for future transactions

          

  39. Employee folioused to track employee purchases, compute discounts, monitor expense account activity, and separate authorized business charges from personal expenditures

          

  40. Inventory valuationa POS feature that enables the tracking of individual item sales by perpetually monitoring inventory

          

  41. Trial balanceoften abbreviated as "Gb," equal to 1,073,741,834 bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity

          

  42. Open check filecontains data from the front office guest accounting module, such as balances form guest folios, non-guest accounts, bill-to accounts, credit card billings, and others

          

  43. Sales analysis reporta report generated by automated systems listing hour and wage information for each employee who worked during a period specified by management

          

  44. Gigahertz (GHz)a stored value media device containing prepaid deposits for future transactions

          

  45. Last in, first out (LIFO)an inventory valuation method that assumes that the products that are most recently purchases are used first. The inventory value is assumed to be represented by the cost of items placed in storage the earliest

          

  46. Throughputan electronic data processing term referring to the time that elapses between data input and information output

          

  47. Nonautomated honor bartypically involves stocks of items that are held in dry and cold storage areas within a guestroom. Changes in the bar's beginning inventory level are noted either by housekeeping room attendants during their normal rounds or by designated room service employees

          

  48. Direct cutover conversiona feature of an energy management system that maintains usage levels below a given limit by shedding energy loads in an orderly fashion

          

  49. Touchscreen terminala remote printing device of a POS system that produces a continuous detailed record of all transactions entered anywhere in the system. Hard copy is produced on narrow register tape (usually 20 columns wide) and provides management with a thorough system audit

          

  50. Override optionsprovide management with complete control over cash disbursements before engaging the automatic check writing feature of the accounts payable module

          

  51. Rooms allotment reportsummarizes rooms committed (booked or blocked) by future date

          

  52. Revenue center reportprojects future revenue by multiplying predicted occupancies by current house rates

          

  53. Mousea flashing marker on a display screen that indicates where the next character to be entered will appear

          

  54. Customer relationship management (CRM)sets up billing information. Customer data maintained in this file includes: account code, name of guest or account, address, telephone number, contact person, type of account, credit limit, last payment date, last payment amount, and credit history

          

  55. City ledger filemonitors the calculation and printing of bank checks for payments of selected invoices

          

  56. System conversionthe process of switching from the current information system to the capabilities of a new system

          

  57. Station message detail recorda feature of a call accounting system that charts and monitors telephone traffic.

          

  58. Sub-recipea hardware component of the internet that connects two or more networks that use the same data transfer protocol. A bridge makes attached networks appear to operate as a single network. The purposes of a bridge are to extend network capabilities and to isolate network traffic

          

  59. Customer master filemaintains the number of hours each employee works during a pay period and other data that may require special tax calculations, such as sick leave pay, bonus pay, tips, and expense reimbursements

          

  60. Empty bottle sensorcan be part of an automated beverage control unit; relays a signal to the order entry device

          

  61. Marketing category reportcompiles weekly totals summarizing the revenue earned by food and beverage departments (or categories)

          

  62. Individual folioin relation to the purchase of a technology system, these costs include taxes, insurance, shipping, and other costs that may result from modifying the property's air conditioning, electrical, and telephone wiring systems; establishing contingency programs; installing uninterruptible power sources; and maintaining an inventory of spare parts

          

  63. Receipt printera category of electronic printers that includes thermal, ink jet, and laser printers

          

  64. Network controllerpart of a POS system that coordinates communications between cashier or precheck terminals and workstation printers or kitchen monitors, while ensuring that servers need enter orders only once. Also called a printer controller

          

  65. Scannercontrols the flow of info along a network and establishes a gateway to other computer networks

          

  66. Accounts aging filecontains accounts receivable data that can be formatted into a variety of aging reports that segment accounts in the file according to the date the charge originated

          

  67. Single image inventorya configuration in which all e-distribution channels operate from the same database

          

  68. Information technology (IT)technology that establishes a communication process in which data are transferred from related systems; processed according to pre-established decision-making rules, financial models, or other analytical methods; and stored in information formats tailored to the needs of individual managers

          

  69. Routera hardware component of the internet that directs messages between different areas of the internet

          

  70. Read-only memory (ROM)often abbreviated as ROM, a portion of the internal memory of a system that holds a permanent record of information that the system needs to use each time it is turned on

          

  71. enterprise systemaddresses the technology needs of multi-property hospitality organizations, such as hotel and restaurant chains as well age management companies

          

  72. Database filesprovides important information on the financial position of a hospitality business by showing its assets, liabilities, and equity on a particular date

          

  73. Cloud computinga process that creates the tracks and sectors of a disk on which the system is able to read and write info

          

  74. Rooms productivity reportsignals to management the specific rooms whose status must be investigated to avoid sleepers. The report notes any variances between front desk and housekeeping room status updates

          

  75. Rooms discrepancy reportranks room types by percentage of occupancy and/or by percentage of total rooms revenue

          

  76. Net sales by time of day reporta report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating hourly sales; the report is useful for forecasting sales and scheduling servers and bartenders according to expected demand

          

  77. Zip diskcompresses data to conserve storage space and requires a unique zip drive to operate

          

  78. Property system managerPart of a POS system terminal enabling the operator to review and edit transaction entries

          

  79. electronic data interchange (EDI)transfer of fata between different companies using networks such as the internet. As more and more companies are connected to the internet, EDI is an increasingly important mechanism for companies to buy, sell, and trade info

          

  80. Booking lead timethe time during which a computer is not functioning due to hardware or system software failure

          

  81. Bytea special sequence of bits 9electronic date) representing a single character. A byte is a group of adjacent bits that work, or are operated on as a unit. Theoretically, a byte may be any length, but the most common length for a byte is eight bits

          

  82. Overrun facilitya hotel property selected to receive reservation requests after chain properties have exhausted room availabilities in a geographic region

          

  83. Reservation recordthe reservationist's initial inquiry procedures create a reservation record that initiates the hotel guest cycle. Reservation record identify guest and their needs before guests arrive at the property; such record enable the hotel to personalize guest service and appropriately schedule needed personnel

          

  84. Precheck terminalgenerally applies to more than one guest or room and contains a record of transactions that are not posted to individual folios. Master folios are commonly created to provide the kind of billing service required by most groups and conventions

          

  85. Central processing unit (CPU)the control center of a system. Inside are the circuits and mechanisms that process and store information and send instructions to the other system components

          

  86. Internet distribution system (IDS)electronic networks used by travel agents and some internet-based distribution channels to make airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations.

          

  87. Sales mix by major product reporta report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating hourly sales; the report is useful for forecasting sales and scheduling servers and bartenders according to expected demand

          

  88. Menu engineeringa menu management application for evaluating decisions regarding current and future menu pricing, design, and contents. This application requires that management focus on the number of dollars a menu contributes to profit and not simply monitor cost percentages

          

  89. USB drivea data storage device that connects to a USB port

          

  90. Random access memory (RAM)often abbreviated as RAM, a portion of a system's internal memory that holds a temporary version of the programs or data that users are processing

          

  91. Expanded memorythe additional memory capacity that resides outside the system's basic memory. It can be accessed in revolving blocks, and is available as add-on boards that are inserted into one of the system's expansion slots

          

  92. Glass sensorgenerally applies to more than one guest or room and contains a record of transactions that are not posted to individual folios. Master folios are commonly created to provide the kind of billing service required by most groups and conventions

          

  93. Data processingprovides important information on the financial position of a hospitality business by showing its assets, liabilities, and equity on a particular date

          

  94. Dual-core processingincluding sub-recipes as ingredients for a particular standard recipe. This enables the computer-based restaurant management system to maintain a record for a particular menu item that requires an unusually large number of ingredients

          

  95. global distribution system (GDS)internet-based services providing consumers with the ability to book airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations

          

  96. Daily sales reporta file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing general data maintained by the labor master file; it is commonly used to verify an employee's hourly rate(s), job codes, or social security number

          

  97. Bid specification filecontains the specific characteristics of purchased items. Purveyors are asked to quote prices for products that meet or exceed stated specifications

          

  98. Micro-fitted electronic locking systeman electronic locking system that operates as a stand-alone unit. Each door has its own microprocessor that contains a unique, predetermined sequence of codes. A master console at the front desk contains a record of all code sequences for each door

          

  99. Trial balance filea file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing one record for each employee; it typically maintains the following data: employee name, employee number, social security number, authorized job codes, and corresponding hourly wage rates. This file may also contain data required to produce labor reports for management

          

  100. Bitfacts or figures to be processed into useful information. Three types of data are alpha data, numeric data, and alphanumeric data.

          

  101. Active call accounting systeman external reservation network

          

  102. Hardwarea systems term referring to the physical equipment of a system. Hardware is visible, movable, and easy to identify. In order to have a system, three hardware components are required: an input/output component, a central processing unit (CPU), and an external storage device

          

  103. Product usage reporta report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems
    indicating amounts of beverage products sold during a shift; the report enables managers to minimize inventory control problems

          

  104. Labor master filemaintains records of all current vendors. Data contained in this file includes: Vendor number, vendor name, contact name, address, telephone number, vendor payment priority, discount terms, discount account number, invoice description, payment date, and year-to-date purchases

          

  105. Automatic form number reader (AFNR)a feature of a call accounting system that provides the capability of connecting with a variety of common carriers

          

  106. Rooms management modulefront office application software that maintains up-to-date information regarding the status of rooms, assists in the assignment of rooms during registration, and helps coordinate many guest services

          

  107. Voice over internet protocol (VoIP)communication network requiring specialty hardware and internet access that enables worldwide connectivity

          

  108. Outstanding checks lista POS system function that automatically sends orders to the kitchen simultaneously based on course

          

  109. Fiscal yeartwelve consecutive months that define a business year

          

  110. Bridgeinternet technology applied to create a privatized, partitioned web-access area. Intranets are generally restricted to company employees, business associates, and private club members

          

  111. Soft copyfacts or figures to be processed into useful information. Three types of data are alpha data, numeric data, and alphanumeric data.

          

  112. Accounts payableliabilities incurred for merchandise, equipment, or other goods and
    services that have been purchases on account

          

  113. First in, first out (FIFO)depicts the revenue history and use of each room by room type. This
    report is especially useful to those properties employing an automatic room assignment function

          

  114. Distribution service provider (DSP)an intermediary between a CRS and e-distribution channels that provides single image inventory information to participating online GDS and IDS entities and communicates reservation information back to the CRS. Also called a switching company.

          

  115. Search enginesoftware that reads indexed websites and creates lists and links to sites that match a user's inquiry

          

  116. Monthly check registerprovides a hard copy audit trail of payments made to vendors. This report also identifies checks that have not yet been accounted for

          

  117. Daily transactions reporta report generated by automated food and beverage systems providing an in-depth analysis of sales transactions by individual server

          

  118. Postcostingthe process of exploring a database to uncover patterns and relationships relevant to the decision or issue at hand

          

  119. Revenue forecast reportprojects future revenue by multiplying predicted occupancies by current house rates

          

  120. Weekly sales spreadsheetcan be part of an automated beverage control unit; relays a signal to the order entry device

          

  121. Check registeroften abbreviated as "Tb," equal to one trillion bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity

          

  122. Call accounting system (CAS)electronically monitors guestroom temperatures

          

  123. Anti-virus softwareprograms that search for binary signatures (patterns) of known viruses that have attached themselves to executable programs. As new viruses are discovered, the signature database has to be updated in order for the anti-virus program to be effective. Vendors generally offer downloads via the web in order to keep clients current

          

  124. Flowchartspecifically designed symbols to diagram the flow of data and documents through an information system

          

  125. Relational database structurein database management software, arranges data files, records, and fields into formations that resemble the structure of the roots of a tree

          

  126. Management information system (MIS)a system designed to provide managers with the necessary information needed to plan, organize, staff, direct, and control operations

          

  127. Guest information servicescontains the specific characteristics of purchased items. Purveyors are asked to quote prices for products that meet or exceed stated specifications

          

  128. Ratio analysisa collection of related facts and figures designed to serve a specific purpose

          

  129. Microprocessor-based beverage devicea collective statistic that effectively combines the potential average single and double rates, multiple occupancy percentage, and rate spread to produce the average rate that would apply if all rooms were sold at their full rack rates

          

  130. Sales by beverage server reporta report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating the total sales of each beverage server during a shift

          

  131. Rooms history reportdepicts the revenue history and use of each room by room type. This
    report is especially useful to those properties employing an automatic room assignment function

          

  132. USBuniversal serial bus; a peripheral device connector that is much faster than parallel or serial ports

          

  133. Data mininga multidimensional database organized for one department or function

          

  134. Inventory valuation filecontains data for determining the cost of goods sold and the replacement cost of items listed in the inventory master file

          

  135. Guestroom control bookguides guestroom booking activity by providing the sales office with the maximum number of guestrooms it can sell to groups on a given day. The remaining guestrooms (and any unsold guestrooms allotted to groups) are available for individual guests

          

  136. Check reconciliationthe lowest or highest selling price on a menu

          

  137. World wide web (www)a user-friendly part of the internet that offers an incredibly rich combination of text, images, sound, animation, and video

          

  138. firewalla method for keeping a network secure from intruders. It can be a single router or a combination of routers and servers, each performing some type of firewall processing

          

  139. Physical inventory systeman inventory system in which property employees periodically
    observe and count items in storage

          

  140. Smart switchtranslates reservations transactions into as many unique formats as required by diverse network interconnections, thereby allowing users to share data from different reservation systems without having to deal with complex formats, files, and operating systems. The smart switch can access reservation system files and convert the data into easy-to-use formats and files

          

  141. Chart of accountsguest checks that are made of stiff-paper cards. Hard checks are stored outside the cashier terminal system

          

  142. Settlement keyspart of a POS system keyboard programmed to maintain the price, descriptor, department, tax, and inventory status of a menu item

          

  143. Revenue managementprojects future revenue by multiplying predicted occupancies by current house rates

          

  144. Aging of accounts receivable schedulesegments each account in the accounts aging file according to the date the charge originated

          

  145. Sleepera system output device that is usually capable of displaying both text and graphics in soft copy. Also, these output units may be programmed to various foreground and background color combinations while operating many software applications

          

  146. uninterruptible power supply (UPS)backup power used when the electrical power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide enough battery power to power down the computer in an orderly manner. Sophisticated systems tied to electrical generators can provide power for days

          

  147. Income statementalso called the profit and loss statement, provides important financial information about the results of operations for a given period of time

          

  148. Nonimpact printera category of electronic printers that includes thermal, ink jet, and laser printers

          

  149. Automatic route selectionsets up billing information. Customer data maintained in this file includes: account code, name of guest or account, address, telephone number, contact person, type of account, credit limit, last payment date, last payment amount, and credit history

          

  150. Rooms status reportdepicts the revenue history and use of each room by room type. This
    report is especially useful to those properties employing an automatic room assignment function

          

  151. Other equipment manufacturer (OEM) contractlists all invoices selected for payment and the corresponding cash requirement totals; prepared by vendor number, vendor name, due date, item, or group code and typically including vendor number, vender name, invoice number, due date, balance due, and amount to be paid

          

  152. House limita credit limit predetermined by management

          

  153. Gigabytea systems term referring to the physical equipment of a system. Hardware is visible, movable, and easy to identify. In order to have a system, three hardware components are required: an input/output component, a central processing unit (CPU), and an external storage device

          

  154. Invoice register filemaintains basic inventory data, such as item name, item description (brief), inventory code number, storeroom location code, item purchase unit, purchase unit price, item issue unit, product group code, vendor identification number, order lead time, minimum-maximum stock levels, and date of last purchase

          

  155. Voice recognitiona form of input that converts spoken data directly into electronic form suitable for processing

          

  156. Weighted averagean inventory valuation method that considers the quantity of products purchased at different unit costs. This method "weights" the prices to be average based on the quantity of products in storage at each price

          

  157. Chart of accounts filelists the names of accounts in a sequence that parallels the order of their appearance on the financial statements and general ledger

          

  158. HyperText transfer protocol (http)set of file download commands embedded within the hypertext markup language used to place text, graphics, video, and other information displays on the World Wide Web

          

  159. Parallel conversiona collection of database records and fields

          

  160. Reconciliation audit reportsummarizes rooms committed (booked or blocked) by future date

          

  161. minimum/maximum inventory levelsdelineates reservation transactions and commissions payable, by agent.

          

  162. Vendor status reportpresents summary accounts payable information

          

  163. Sequential access mediuma systems term referring to an external storage medium, such as a magnetic tape, which stores data in chronological sequence

          

  164. Price look-up (PLU) keycontains data from the front office guest accounting module, such as balances form guest folios, non-guest accounts, bill-to accounts, credit card billings, and others

          

  165. security auditan examination of networks and computer systems to determine an organization's vulnerability to criminal invasion (hackers, viruses, arson, etc.), natural disasters (fire, tornadoes, earthquakes, etc.), and other threats

          

  166. Finished product cateringa form of input that converts spoken data directly into electronic form suitable for processing

          

  167. electronic distributionselling products or services over the internet or some other electronic medium. Hospitality electronic distribution includes the GDS and internet-based sales channels

          

  168. expected departures lista daily report showing the number of guests and the names of the guests expected to arrive with reservations

          

  169. Wash factorelectronic or hard copy documentation containing essential transactional support data for individually placed and rated telephone calls

          

  170. Menu item filemaintains records of all current vendors. Data contained in this file includes: Vendor number, vendor name, contact name, address, telephone number, vendor payment priority, discount terms, discount account number, invoice description, payment date, and year-to-date purchases

          

  171. Call recordsmart cards are made of plastic and are about the same size as credit cards. Microchips embedded in them store information that can be accessed by a specially designed card reader. Smart cards can store information in several files that are acceded for different functions, such as a person's vital health statistics, dietary restrictions, credit card number, and bank balance. Information stores in smart cards is secured by a personal identification number (PIN) that must be used to access files

          

  172. Permanent folioused to track guest folio balances that are settled to a credit card company

          

  173. Passive call accounting systemenables a hotel to take control over local and long-distance services and apply a markup to switchboard operations. Call accounting systems are capable of placing and pricing local and long-distance calls

          

  174. In-room entertainment systemalso called the profit and loss statement, provides important financial information about the results of operations for a given period of time

          

  175. Settlement methods reporta report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating the amounts due in the form of cash, credit card vouchers, and house account charges for sales made during a shift

          

  176. Inventory variancegenerally, the first few letters of a guest's last name. An identification code enables the guest accounting module to process a charge to the correct folio when two separate accounts exist under the same room number

          

  177. Competitive advantagetests the equality of debit and credit account balances

          

  178. Revenue managementa set of demand forecasting techniques used to develop pricing strategies that maximize rooms revenue for a lodging property

          

  179. Turnaway reporta report generated by automated systems providing an in-depth analysis of sales transactions and actual labor hours during selected time periods

          

  180. extranetportion of a public website partitioned and password-protected for access by employees or special workgroups. This private, secure site is used to share documents, calendars, and event info. An intranet site is an ideal online communication tool for centralizing important company info, posting documents, creating schedule, and announcing events

          

  181. Balance sheetthe lowest or highest selling price on a menu

          

  182. Purchasing moduleenhances management's control over purchasing, ordering, and receiving practices

          

  183. Single-vendor contractin relation to the purchase of a technology system, an agreement to purchase hardware and software from the same vendor. In most of these cases, the vendor makes the necessary hardware and software modifications before system implementation

          

  184. Proxy URLsalternative addresses for a company's website that all point to the same main web page

          

  185. WiFi networka subsidiary ledger listing accounts receivable balances of guests who have checked out, and other receivables as well

          

  186. high-speed internet access (HSIA)a systems term referring to an external storage medium, such as a magnetic tape, which stores data in chronological sequence

          

  187. e-commercea systems term referring to a set of programs that instructs or controls the operation of the system's hardware components. Software programs tell the system what to do, how to do it, and when to do it

          

  188. RFID readertwelve consecutive months that define a business year

          

  189. Request for proposalin relation to the purchase of a technology system, a three-part document prepared by management. The first section orients the vendor to management's business operation; the second section establishes bidding requirements for vendor proposals; and the third section deals specifically with user application requirements

          

  190. Handheld terminalafter the check writing routine, the accounts payable module prints a check register by check number. The check register also may be sorted by vendor or by invoice due date

          

  191. Inventory status filea computer-based record of items in storage

          

  192. Multi-vendor contractautomates several internal control and accounting functions

          

  193. Seamless integrationin relation to the implementation of a technology system, a property
    operates a legacy system and a new system simultaneously until confident enough to move entirely to the new system

          

  194. Payroll accounting modulemaintains the number of hours each employee works during a pay period and other data that may require special tax calculations, such as sick leave pay, bonus pay, tips, and expense reimbursements

          

  195. Least-cost routinga feature of an active call accounting system that directs calls over the least-cost available line, regardless of carrier

          

  196. Energy management system (EMS)electronically monitors guestroom temperatures

          

  197. Nonvolatile memorymemory that reaches beyond a system's basic limits; usually required for advanced multitasking (running several applications simultaneously)

          

  198. Internetinterconnected system of networks that share standards and protocols connecting computers around the world

          

  199. Buy-side e-procurement modela "one buyer, many sellers" approach. Buyers purchase Web-based services or use self-supported systems to buy from approved vendors electronically

          

  200. Read/writea system is said to "read" when it takes data in for processing, and "write" when it sends processed data out as information. RAM is often described as read/write memory; the user can both read from RAM (retrieve data) and write to RAM (store data)

          

  201. Intranetportion of a public website partitioned and password-protected for access by employees or special workgroups. This private, secure site is used to share documents, calendars, and event info. An intranet site is an ideal online communication tool for centralizing important company info, posting documents, creating schedule, and announcing events

          

  202. Activity reportalso called a refusal report, tracks the number of room nights refused because rooms were not available for sale. This report is especially helpful to hotels with expansion plans

          

  203. Operating systema system capable of monitoring sales transactions and determining
    inventory replenishment quantities for in-room vending sales. Two popular in-room beverage service systems are nonautomated honor bars and microprocessor-based vending machines

          

  204. Volatile memorya collection of database fields

          

  205. Soft checkskeys on a POS system terminal dedicated to specific functions programmed by the manufacturer

          

  206. Labor master reporta file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing general data maintained by the labor master file; it is commonly used to verify an employee's hourly rate(s), job codes, or social security number

          

  207. Productivity reportslists details of all items received on a given day

          

  208. lead-time quantitycharges purchases made by guests that are posted to folios after guests have settled their accounts

          

  209. Terabyteoften abbreviated as "Tb," equal to one trillion bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity

          

  210. System updateperforms many of the same functions performed by the night audit routine in nonautomated properties. System updates are run daily to allow for report production, system file reorganization, and system maintenance, and to provide an end-of-day time frame

          

  211. Ledger summary reportshows cash, charge, and paid-out totals by department and serves as a macro-analysis of departmental transactions

          

  212. Self-check-in/self-check-out terminalsa POS on-board printing device that is sometimes called a slip printer. A sophisticated guest check printer may be equipped with an automatic form number reader and may possess automatic slip feed capabilities.

          

  213. Hierarchical database structurepart of a wireless system supporting the use of handheld server terminals that relays signals received from antenna units to a digital computer's processing unit

          

  214. Central reservation officean external reservation network

          

  215. Property management system (PMS)responsible for orchestrating the hardware and the software within the system. It establishes the system's priorities and directs its resources to accomplish desired tasks

          

  216. Daily labor reporta report generated by automated systems listing the names, employee numbers, hours worked, wages earned, and wages declared for each employee on a given workday

          

  217. Gatewaya vacant room that is believed to be occupied because the room rack slip or registration card was not removed from the rack when the guest departed (in nonautomated hotels) or because of room status report discrepancies or errors (in automated hotels).

          

  218. Non-guest foliocreated for an individual who has in-house charge privileges but is not registered as a guest in the hotel. Individuals with non-guest folios may include health club members, corporate clients, special club members, political leaders, or local celebrities

          

  219. Intranetinternet technology applied to create a privatized, partitioned web-access area. Intranets are generally restricted to company employees, business associates, and private club members

          

  220. Formattinga process that creates the tracks and sectors of a disk on which the system is able to read and write info

          

  221. Guest check sensorpart of an automated beverage control unit preventing the system from fulfilling beverage orders unless they are first recorded to an open guest check

          

  222. Uniform resource locator (URL)designates the internet address of a site usually the site's homepage

          

  223. Function keysinternet technology applied to create a privatized, partitioned web-access area. Intranets are generally restricted to company employees, business associates, and private club members

          

  224. Housekeeper productivity reportused to assign floor and room numbers to room attendants and to list room status. This report may also provide space for special messages from the housekeeping department

          

  225. Kitchen display unit (KDU)on-board printing devices that produce hard copy on narrow register tape

          

  226. Source documenta printed voucher, usually serially numbered for internal-control purposes, from a revenue-producing department showing an amount that is charged to a folio

          

  227. Affiliate reservation systemobligations owed an organization from sales made on credit

          

  228. Outstanding guest checks reporta report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems to resolve any discrepancy existing between the sales by major beverage category report and the sales by beverage server report

          

  229. Ratioa configuration of workstations that enables users to share data, programs, and component devices (such as monitors and printers).

          

  230. Menu boarda keyboard overlay for a POS system terminal that identifies the function performed by each key during a specific meal period

          

  231. Electronic locking system (ELS)interfaces with a property management system and allows the front desk to control the locking of rooms electronically

          

  232. Outstanding checks reporta report produced by automated point-of-sale equipment that lists all guest checks (by server) that have not been settles; information may include the guest check number, server identification number, time at which the guest check was opened, number of guests, table number, and guest check total

          

  233. Financial reporting moduleshows transfers to non-guest (city) ledgers from guest accounts

          

  234. Central reservation systeman external reservation network

          

  235. e-distributionoften abbreviated as "Gb," equal to 1,073,741,834 bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity

          

  236. Accounts payable moduletracks purchases, creditor positions, and the hotel's banking status

          

  237. Extranetthe simultaneous purchase and sale of an asset in order to profit from a price difference

          

  238. Actual departures reportindicates the current status of rooms according to housekeeping designations, such as on-change, out-of-order, and clean and ready for inspection

          

  239. Magnetic diskscompresses data to conserve storage space and requires a unique zip drive to operate

          

  240. Debit carddebit cards differ from credit cards in that the cardholder must deposit money in order to give the card value. The cardholder deposits money in advance of purchases through a debit card center or an electronic debit posting machine; as purchases are made, the balance on the debit card falls

          

  241. e-procurementpurchasing goods and service over the internet

          

  242. Streamliningan electronic data processing practice of generating only those reports that are requested by staff members who will actually use the information

          

  243. Kilobyteoften abbreviated as "K" or "Kb," equal to 1,024 bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity

          

  244. Period labor reporta feature of an energy management system that maintains usage levels below a given limit by shedding energy loads in an orderly fashion

          

  245. Interfaceconnection and interaction between hardware, software, and the user

          

  246. Rooms activity forecastprovides information on anticipated arrivals, departures, stayovers, and vacancies. This report assists managers in staffing front desk and housekeeping areas.

          

  247. Late chargesindividual component parts of a data mart

          

  248. Point-of-sales (POS) systemnetwork of terminals that are combines with cash registers, bar code readers, optical scanners, and magnetic stripe readers for instantly capturing sales transactions. In restaurants, these systems manage the ordering and delivery of all menu items In one or more restaurants and/or bars

          

  249. Duty cyclingthe process of exploring a database to uncover patterns and relationships relevant to the decision or issue at hand

          

  250. Bus systemoften abbreviated as "Tb," equal to one trillion bytes, and commonly used to describe computer memory capacity

          

  251. Semi-permanent folioused to track guest folio balances that are settled to a credit card company

          

  252. Control folioconstructed for each revenue center and used to track all transactions posted to other folios (individual, master, non-guest, or employee). Control folios provide a basis for double entry accounting and for cross-checking the balances of all electronic folios

          

  253. Reservation transaction recorda report generated by automated food and beverage systems providing an in-depth analysis of sales transactions by individual server

          

  254. Automated time-clock systema hotel chain's reservation system in which all participating properties are contractually related. Each property is represented in the computer system database and is required to provide room availability data to the reservations center on a timely basis.

          

  255. Hard copyexternal storage devices that are much faster to use and store far greater amounts of info than magnetic disks. Hard disks are permanently online to the system

          

  256. Access pointdevice in a wireless network capable of receiving and transmitting signals

          

  257. Room occupancy sensorssensors that use either infrared light or ultrasonic waves to register the physical occupancy of a room

          

  258. Hard-wired electronic locking systeman electronic locking system that operates through a centralized master code console that is interfaced to every controlled guestroom door

          

  259. Yield statisticthe ratio of actual room revenue to potential room revenue

          

  260. Monitora system input device capable of translating a page of text into a machine-readable format by converting the images on a page into digitized information that the system can recognize

          

  261. Inventory filea computer-based record of items in storage

          

  262. Modifier keysa method for keeping a network secure from intruders. It can be a single router or a combination of routers and servers, each performing some type of firewall processing

          

  263. Direct costsin relation to the purchase of a technology system, these costs include taxes, insurance, shipping, and other costs that may result from modifying the property's air conditioning, electrical, and telephone wiring systems; establishing contingency programs; installing uninterruptible power sources; and maintaining an inventory of spare parts

          

  264. Deductionsin relation to the purchase of a technology system, the costs of individual system components

          

  265. Property profilea system is said to "read" when it takes data in for processing, and "write" when it sends processed data out as information. RAM is often described as read/write memory; the user can both read from RAM (retrieve data) and write to RAM (store data)

          

  266. Datafacts or figures to be processed into useful information. Three types of data are alpha data, numeric data, and alphanumeric data.

          

  267. Menu item filea file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing one record for each employee; it typically maintains the following data: employee name, employee number, social security number, authorized job codes, and corresponding hourly wage rates. This file may also contain data required to produce labor reports for management

          

  268. Data cubeindividual component parts of a data mart

          

  269. Customer display unitalso called the profit and loss statement, provides important financial information about the results of operations for a given period of time

          

  270. Product differentiationthe art of applying technology to produce a feature or product that is unique

          

  271. Impact printeran electronic printer, such as a dot matrix printer, that print character by character and line by line

          

  272. Guest accounting modulefront office application software that maintains up-to-date information regarding the status of rooms, assists in the assignment of rooms during registration, and helps coordinate many guest services

          

  273. Extended memoryelectronic or hard copy documentation containing essential transactional support data for individually placed and rated telephone calls

          

  274. Binary codea printed paper copy of system-processed info

          

  275. Networka systems term referring to a set of programs that instructs or controls the operation of the system's hardware components. Software programs tell the system what to do, how to do it, and when to do it

          

  276. Payroll register filemaintains the number of hours each employee works during a pay period and other data that may require special tax calculations, such as sick leave pay, bonus pay, tips, and expense reimbursements

          

  277. Sales by major beverage category reporta file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing general data maintained by the labor master file; it is commonly used to verify an employee's hourly rate(s), job codes, or social security number

          

  278. sell-side e-procurement modelinvolves placing an order directly with a supplier over the internet. In this many-to-one environment (many buyers, one seller), the buyer generally accesses the supplier's own website to do research and make purchases

          

  279. Automatic identification of outward dialinga POS system function that automatically sends orders to the kitchen simultaneously based on course

          

  280. Laser printera high-speed electronic nonimpact printer similar in appearance to desktop photocopying machines. While other printers print one character at a time, laser technology enables these devices to print an entire page all at once

          

  281. lock downan action designed to restrict the functionality of a system. For example, network administrators can lock down client desktops so that user can perform only certain operations

          

  282. Housekeeper assignment reportpresents guest, non-guest, and credit card activity by beginning balance, cumulative charges, and credits

          

  283. Real time capabilityrefers to simultaneous processing. For example, real time capability enables a reservationist to receive necessary feedback from the system immediately in order to respond to a caller's requests during a telephone call

          

  284. Guest check printera POS on-board printing device that is sometimes called a slip printer. A sophisticated guest check printer may be equipped with an automatic form number reader and may possess automatic slip feed capabilities.

          

  285. Demand controlin relation to the purchase of a technology system, costs associated with supplies, customized forms, training, overtime pay, and data conversion normally not included in the system purchase price

          

  286. In-room check-outpurchasing goods and service over the internet

          

  287. Banquet event order (BEO)automates several internal control and accounting functions

          

  288. Master foliogenerally applies to more than one guest or room and contains a record of transactions that are not posted to individual folios. Master folios are commonly created to provide the kind of billing service required by most groups and conventions

          

  289. Accounts receivableobligations owed an organization from sales made on credit

          

  290. Databasea collection of related facts and figures designed to serve a specific purpose

          

  291. Sales by time of day reporta report produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicating how much of each beverage product was sold during a shift; the report is useful for monitoring product sales trends and adjusting par inventory levels when necessary

          

  292. Antenna unitspart of a system that supports the use of wireless, handheld server terminals. Antenna units relay signals from handheld terminal to a radio base station

          

  293. Workstation printerremote printing devices usually placed at kitchen preparation areas and service bars

          

  294. Automatic slip feed (ASF)a feature of a guest check printer that prevents overprinting of items and amounts on guest checks

          

  295. Merchant modelan e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds its own markup factor and sells the rooms to consumers. Also called the markup model.

          

  296. Hard checksguest checks that are made of stiff-paper cards. Hard checks are stored outside the cashier terminal system

          

  297. expected arrivals lista daily report showing the number of guests and the names of the guests expected to arrive with reservations

          

  298. Weekly labor reportindicates the current status of rooms according to housekeeping designations, such as on-change, out-of-order, and clean and ready for inspection

          

  299. Reservation inquirya reservation request is formulated into a reservation inquiry by the reservationist. This inquiry typically collects the following data: date of arrival, type and number of rooms requested, number of room nights, room rate code (standard, special, package, etc.), and number of persons in party

          

  300. downtimea systems term referring to a set of programs that instructs or controls the operation of the system's hardware components. Software programs tell the system what to do, how to do it, and when to do it

          

  301. Cash requirements reportlists all invoices selected for payment and the corresponding cash requirement totals; prepared by vendor number, vendor name, due date, item, or group code and typically including vendor number, vender name, invoice number, due date, balance due, and amount to be paid

          

  302. Labor cost reportshows labor costs by department or job classifications

          

  303. Price pointan electronic printer, such as a dot matrix printer, that print character by character and line by line

          

  304. Softwarecontrols the flow of info along a network and establishes a gateway to other computer networks

          

  305. Indirect costsin relation to the purchase of a technology system, these costs include taxes, insurance, shipping, and other costs that may result from modifying the property's air conditioning, electrical, and telephone wiring systems; establishing contingency programs; installing uninterruptible power sources; and maintaining an inventory of spare parts

          

  306. daily receiving reportlists details of all items received on a given day

          

  307. Ringback mechanismthe process of exploring a database to uncover patterns and relationships relevant to the decision or issue at hand

          

  308. Delivery networka code based on only two digits, zero and one. This is the form of data a computer can handle with the greatest ease because electronic circuits have two natural states: "on," usually represented by the binary digit one; and "off," represented by the binary digit zero

          

  309. In-room vending systemwhen in-room computers are interfaced with a computer-based property management system's guest accounting module, they are able to access folio data and provide guests with a way to approve and settle their accounts

          

  310. Cursora flashing marker on a display screen that indicates where the next character to be entered will appear

          

  311. City ledgera subsidiary ledger listing accounts receivable balances of guests who have checked out, and other receivables as well

          

  312. Hard disksin relation to the purchase of a technology system, the costs of individual system components

          

  313. Payment discount datecontains important data on each purchases ingredient, such as ingredient code number, ingredient description, purchase unit, purchase unit cost, issue unit, issue unit cost, recipe unit, and recipe unit cost

          

  314. Potential average ratethe principal accounting ledger containing all of the balance sheet and statement of income accounts

          

  315. Group booking pacethe rate at which group business is being booked

          

  316. Internet distribution system (IDS)internet-based services providing consumers with the ability to book airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations

          

  317. Count down functiona POS feature that enables the tracking of individual item sales by perpetually monitoring inventory

          

  318. Hard keyskeys on a POS system terminal dedicated to specific functions programmed by the manufacturer

          

  319. Off-premises catering servicea catering service that typically requires the caterer to be responsible for food and beverage production and service and possibly for providing furnishings, entertainment, decorations, and the like

          

  320. Megahertz (MHz)an e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds its own markup factor and sells the rooms to consumers. Also called the markup model.

          

  321. Smart cardsmart cards are made of plastic and are about the same size as credit cards. Microchips embedded in them store information that can be accessed by a specially designed card reader. Smart cards can store information in several files that are acceded for different functions, such as a person's vital health statistics, dietary restrictions, credit card number, and bank balance. Information stores in smart cards is secured by a personal identification number (PIN) that must be used to access files

          

  322. Ink jet printeran electronic nonimpact printer that works by spraying a minute and finely controlled jet of ink onto paper. The ink (Carbon) is electrically charged as it is sprayed onto the paper. Once charged, the jet of ink can be moved around by electric fields in much the same way that an electron beam is used to produce a picture on a television set.

          

  323. Guest check control reportpart of a POS system that coordinates communications between cashier or precheck terminals and workstation printers or kitchen monitors, while ensuring that servers need enter orders only once. Also called a printer controller

          

  324. Reservation modulean e-commerce strategy in which a seller negotiates a discounted rate with a supplier hotel and then adds its own markup factor and sells the rooms to consumers. Also called the markup model.

          

  325. global distribution system (GDS)electronic networks used by travel agents and some internet-based distribution channels to make airline, hotel, car rental, and cruise ship reservations.

          

  326. Power platformconsolidates electronic communications between a hospitality establishment and a credit card authorization center. Power platforms can capture credit card authorizations in three seconds or less. A POS power platform connects all POS terminals to a single processor for transaction settlement

          

  327. Commission agent reportdepicts the revenue history and use of each room by room type. This
    report is especially useful to those properties employing an automatic room assignment function

          

  328. Recipe chainingincluding sub-recipes as ingredients for a particular standard recipe. This enables the computer-based restaurant management system to maintain a record for a particular menu item that requires an unusually large number of ingredients

          

  329. Vendor master filea file maintained by sophisticated POS systems containing one record for each employee; it typically maintains the following data: employee name, employee number, social security number, authorized job codes, and corresponding hourly wage rates. This file may also contain data required to produce labor reports for management

          

  330. Transfer reportalso called a refusal report, tracks the number of room nights refused because rooms were not available for sale. This report is especially helpful to hotels with expansion plans

          

  331. Inventory statusan account of how much of each item is in storage. Inventory status may be determined by a physical inventory or a perpetual inventory

          

  332. Conversion tablesautomated programs that convert purchase units into issue and recipe units and track ingredients (by unit and by cost) as they pass through purchasing/feceiving, storing/issuing, and production/service control points

          

  333. Cashier terminalwireless server terminal that performs most of the functions of a precheck terminal and enables servers to enter orders at tableside

          

  334. Vendor activity reportlists gross amount invoiced, discounts taken, number of invoices, and other vendor data

          

  335. Function booksubtractions from gross pay that are usually voluntary and depend on the types of benefits available from the employer

          

  336. Displacementa process that creates the tracks and sectors of a disk on which the system is able to read and write info

          

  337. Common carrierany recognized entity that transmits messages or other communication for general use at accepted rates

          

  338. Credit monitoring routineselling products or services over the internet or some other electronic medium. Hospitality electronic distribution includes the GDS and internet-based sales channels

          

  339. Common-size balance sheetsAnalysis of financial statements and operating results through the use of ratios

          

  340. Wholesaler modelthe principal accounting ledger containing all of the balance sheet and statement of income accounts

          

  341. Nonaffiliate reservation systema subscription system linking independent properties. A hotel subscribes to the system's services and takes responsibility for updating the system with accurate room availability data

          

  342. Inventory modulecontains important data on each purchases ingredient, such as ingredient code number, ingredient description, purchase unit, purchase unit cost, issue unit, issue unit cost, recipe unit, and recipe unit cost

          

  343. Traffic transaction filepart of a call accounting system that maintains data necessary for generating reports for management

          

  344. Check register filemonitors the calculation and printing of bank checks for payments of selected invoices

          

  345. Servera vacant room that is believed to be occupied because the room rack slip or registration card was not removed from the rack when the guest departed (in nonautomated hotels) or because of room status report discrepancies or errors (in automated hotels).

          

  346. Arbitragea systems term referring to a set of programs that instructs or controls the operation of the system's hardware components. Software programs tell the system what to do, how to do it, and when to do it

          

  347. Registration progress reportprovides the rooms department with a summary of current house information; may list present check-ins, number of occupied rooms, names of guests who have reservations but are not yet registered, and the number of rooms available for sale; may also profile room status, rooms revenue, and average room rate

          

  348. Operator monitorPart of a POS system terminal enabling the operator to review and edit transaction entries

          

  349. Department systems supervisoran individual already employed within a specific department who receives extensive training in the operation of hardware, software applications, and network components, and afterward conducts training sessions for others and provides some technical support services

          

  350. Precostingin relation to the purchase of a technology system, the costs of individual system components

          

  351. Inventory master fileautomates several internal control and accounting functions

          

  352. Touchscreen terminala terminal that contains a unique adaptation of a CRT or LCD screen
    and a special microprocessor to control it. The self-contained microprocessor displays data on areas of the screen that are sensitive to touch