157 Multiple choice questions
- Responsible for all sautéed items and their sauce. This is usually the highest stratified position of all the stations.
method of doing business wherin a franchisor liscenses trademarks and
methods of doing business to a franchisee in exchange for a one-time
franchise fee and a recurring royalty fee
- A program that presents methods for systematically ridding kitchens of pathogens. The system follows seven basic steps:
1. Identify hazards and asses their severity and risks
2. Determine critical control points (CCP) in food preparation
3. Determine critical control limits (CCLs) for each CCP identified
4. Monitor CCPs and record data
5. Take corrective action whenever monitoring indicates a CCL is exceeded.
6. Establish an effective record-keeping system to document the HACCP system
7. Establish procedures to verify that the HACCP system is working
average number of guests who would, if all other things were equal, eat
at any of the competing restaurants. Divide the number of potential
guests in a catchment area by the number of competing restaurants.
- Income Statement
by comparing the organization to its competitors and the general
business environment and configure the points of comparison.
profit expected. Owners invest for ego, family employment, and
livlihood. The return depends on alternatives. CD or money market fund;
Stock market or mutual funds at 4-8%. Therefore considering risk-would
hope for 12-18% return/yield.
Operating profits+RE appreciation+Depreciation tax advantages
-Consider risks and rewards
legal entity similar to a person in that it ca borrow, buy, and conduct
business and must pay state and federal taxes on profits. Corporations
provide limited liability for the owner. Corporation owners cannot be
sued for the debts of the corporation unless they personally guarantee
them. Step 1-Hire and attorney for legal advice. Step 2-Select a state
in which to incorporate. The entrepreneur (shareholders/stockholders)
must own 50% of stock to regain control.
- When something is given in exchange for something else as a basis of employment decisions by a supervisor
- General area for restaurants in a market share
- 1. Core product-the function part of the product server for the customer. Offering a relaxing and memorable evening
2. Formal product-The tangible part of the product. Includes physical aspects of the restaurant and its decor. Incldues food, beverages, parking, type of restaurant, location.
3. Augmented product-Includes the other services suc as acceptance of credit cards, valet parking, and table reservation service.
process of writing off against expenses the cost of an asset over its
useful life. Things such as furniture or buildings lower in value so
money is set aside to replace those items. Tangible items that have a
life span are depreciable while land is not.
group with similar characteristics (needs, wants, income, background,
buying habits, and so on). A restaurant aims to address th wants and
needs of specific market segments. When the product matches the desired
segment's wants and needs, a successful marketing relationship is
formed. Groups that respond in a similar way must be idendifiable,
measurable, and of appropriate size. In addition, they must be reachable
by advertising media.
service, Usually no alcohol, competes with QSR and Casual, Home meal
replacement, many breakfast and lunch only restuarants, (Ex. Boston
Market, Friendly's, Denny's)
- Have complete liability but full management rights
- Also referred to as a swing cook, fills in as needed on stations in the kitchen.
locations, Variety of demographics, Limited menus, Competitive prices,
Fast service (many self-service), Many part-time employees, unskilled
labor, skilled management, drive throughs Chains dominate, simple units
(Ex. McDonald's, KFC)
pension plans, they are not taxable to particpants. To calculate how
fast an investment doubles itself if no taxes are paid, divide the rate
of return into 72 and you get the number of years required to double
your money at that rate of interest. (Ex. 8 percent (72/8)=9 years
- Management decides on selling price & mark-up for beer, wine & liquor (Sets standard for beverage cost %)
Normal pouring cost for beer - 24- 25%, Wine pouring cost - 26-30%, Liquor pouring costs 16-20% of sales.
Combined beverage pouring cost s/b 23-25%
[drink cost/selling price x100]
- 1. If a partner receives a salary from the partnership, no payroll taxes are deducted.
2. Quite flexible for tax purposes and lends itself to situations whereby one partner supplies the capital and another supplies only services or services plus a lesser amount of capital.
service and serve liquor, Check average $14-$22, specialty
establishments (steak, seafood), Ethnic restuarants, Eatertainment
(Rainforest Cafe, Hard Rock) (Ex. Chilies, Fridays)
- Less than 20 years
to the guest the best face or image of the restauarant, what people
like most about it, or how it stands out from the competition. (Ex. if
value is the best feature, emphasize in postioning statement and ads)
the Sous Chef, in charge of a specific area of production. Line cooks
are often divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with "first
cook", then "second cook", and so on as needed.
- Agreement of promise made between 2 or more parties; courts will enforce (the Law provides a remedy). Must have:
1. Proper Form
2. Legal Capacity
6. Genuine Assent
(Spain), ports (Portugal), Madeiras, and marsalas. Meaning that brandy
or wine alcohol has been added to them, giving a unique taste and
increasing alcohol content by 20%.
program that has helped launch some of the nation's biggest success
stories. Use the program to start, acuire, or expand their business.
Loans have four basic requirements:
1. The right type of business
2. A clear idea of which loan program is best for you
3. Knowing how to fill out the application properly
4. Willingness to provide the detailed financial and market data required
- Responsible for preparing cold foods, including salads, cold appetizers, pâtés and other charcuterie items.
- The total product as it comes into the restaurant. (Production loss+Edible portion)
- A technique of preparing food during slack times then individually vacuum packing items to be refrigerated for future use
servers are skilled performers. Server & guest are both actors in
the play. Once the meal is finished, the play is over, the guest leaves
& the server moves on to next stage.
- Red, White, and Rose
- 1. Is only as strong as his weakest link
2. Must enforce policies
3. Hard to serve every market
4. Can be liable for accidents
5. Do need to provide training and quality control monitering
6. Kept in check and balance by franchisee board
- Guest checks and guest counts
- Offers individually priced items
- 1. Crush-Mixture of grape pulp, skins, seeds & stems
2. Ferment-Yeast acts on sugar to produce alcohol & CO2
3. Rack-Settles before it is poured into barrels
4. Mature-Age it
- share/stockholders - elect a board w/ final responsibility to operate
restaurant. Shareholders not responsible for corp. debts. Investors
contribute paid-in capital or loans (repayment is tax-free &
interest tax deductible)
- Is a leading source for reliable business news and financial information.
highly visible, real-time info to manage and control kitchen
efficiency. Displays food orders for preparation and monitors the timing
of orders for speed of service. Provides status about the status of
each table and captures service times for management reporting.
Statistics such as service times for each guest check and table, average
prep times, and reports on kitchen performance.
- Higher food cost for more expensive and better quality foods.
range from 16% of sales per week in a quick service restaurant to 28%
in a casual operation and up to 40% in an upscale. Payroll Related costs
fall into 2 categories:
Variable (% ratio to payroll)
- Servers & Part-time
Fixed ($ amount per employee on payroll).
- Managers + Administrative
- Food or drink go through a chemical change caused by enzymes produced from yeast.
1. Yeast cells use carbohydrates in fruits and grains (ex. fermenting grapes for wine), in order to grow cells.
2. When they break down the carbohydrate (as sugar) they give off carbon dioxide and alcohol
3. Alter appearance and/or flavor of beer, cheese, wine, yogurt, or liquor.
- Prepares all fried items; this position may be combined with the rotisseur position.
- 1. Able to experiment for less risk
2. Resources to hire staff specialists
3. Greater access to useful comparative financial info
4. Marketplace recognition
5. Advertising help
6. Systems development
7. Economy of scale purchasing
8. Loans are more likely
second in command and direct assistant of the Chef. This person may be
responsible for scheduling and substituting when the Chef is
off-duty,will also fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie (line cook)
when needed, inventory, cleanliness of the kitchen, organization and
constant training of all employees, taking commands from the Chef and
following through with them,responsible for line checks and rotation of
all product. Smaller operations may not have a sous-chef, while larger
operations may have several.
the sale of all types of alcoholic beverages-namely beer, wine, and
distilled spirits for consumption on the premises.
distribution of travel guides reaching more than 40 million members.
Those near major tourist attractions are preferred. Solicitations from
restaurant operators are welcome.
- When restaurant owners want their restaurant to be different in one or more ways to call attention to the food or ambiance.
more descreet way of serving. (Ex. This evening the chef has prepared
her signature peach melba, a traditional sundae consisting of French
vanilla ice cream, a fresh peach half, laced with Melba (raspberry)
sauce. May I bring you one?
- The precise assembly of ingredients and equipment required for the preparation of a recipe
- The usable portion of a product. (As Purchased Price $/Yield %) [when calculating put yield % in decimal format]
- Reasonable anticipation of the possible results of an action
- -Dry storage should be 50-75 degrees
-Produce should be stored at 37-40 degrees
-Meat and poultry should be stored at 33-38 degrees
-Dairy should be stored at 33-38 degrees
-Seafood should be stored at 33-38 degrees
-Temperature danger zone 40-140 degrees
-Final rinse of dishwashing machines is 180 degrees
-Chemical sanitation is most effective at temps between 75 and 120 degrees
- Don't have to pay benefits, Can be scheduled to fit the peaks and valleys in sales
- -An employer cannot make sexual advances or demandss as a condition of employment or advancement
-Cannot abolish an employee's job because the employee refuses sexual advances by the employer or supervisory personnel
-Cannot refuse to investigate complaints from an employee that supervisor personnel have engaged in it
-Can be perpetrated by any sex
-Employers are liable for harassment conducted by their employees, supervisory or nonsupervisory
You cannot be a participant in your company's qualified pension or
profit-sharing plans. A sole proprietor can set up a Keogh retirement
plan for self and employees however law limits the amount.
2. The owner's liability for all of the restaurant's debts and any tort liability to third parties is unlimited. Theoretically, owner's limit their liability by incorporating however in most cases the owner's are called upon to endorse or guarantee the corporation's liabilities.
3. Sole proprietorship has no legal existence apart from the ownder. The death or incapacity of the owner has severe legal implications and results in the incorporation of the business, unless it has been willed to another person(s). Often, the willed property
must pass through probate, which can be time-consuming and costly in terms of legal fees.
general liquor lisense and a beer and wine liscense. Both must be
applied for from the state liquor authority. Lengthy application process
doing cost-based pricing first and compare with competition. If there
is a significant difference then the operator must choose another item
or alter the ingredients of the existing item to bring its price in
- The combined costs of food and labor, usually expressed as a percentage of sales. It should not go above 55-60% of sales.
one person operates a restaurant, and one of the simplest and most
prevalent form of business organization. An attorney or accountant is
not needed and a new proprietor is required to register the business
fish dishes and often does all fish butchering as well as appropriate
sauces. This station may be combined with the saucier position.
- 1. Franchise contracts restrict styles and methods of operations, products served, services offered, decor, and furnishings
2. Franchise contracts usually favor the franchisor
3. Pay an upfront franchise fee
4. Pay 4-6% royalty fee out of your pocket monthly, whether you make a profit or not
qualified in making baked goods such as pastries, cakes, biscuits,
macarons, chocolates, breads and desserts. Pastry Chefs can specialize
in cakes in patisseries or bakeries by making wedding, cupcakes,
birthday and special occasion cakes. In larger establishments, the
pastry chef often supervises a separate team in their own kitchen or
- A list of food items served only on a particular day (ex. soup du jour)
- -Cover Sheet (Executive summary, Statement of purpose, Table of Contents, Name and legal structure)
-Description of Business (Mgmt. philosophy-mission/ goals/strategies/type of organization, mgmt qualifications/experience/capabilities)
-Description of Concept Liscences and Lease (Concept,Menu, Menu Pricing, Liquor Liscence/Health/Fire Permits, Business Liscence, Lease)
-Market Analysis and Stategy (Target market, demographics, market potential/size/rate of growth
-Advertising and promotional campaign
-Existing Restaurant Balance Sheet
the place of fine-dining, becoming more sophisticated, professional and
attentive service, unifying theme (P.F. Changs), Menu varied, Wine
prevalent, Higher check average, Themes, Celebrity owned, (Ex.
- To convert assets into cash
- Prepares all grilled foods; this position may be combined with the rotisseur.
hot appetizers and often prepares the soups, vegetables, pastas and
starches. In a full brigade system a potager would prepare soups and a
legumier would prepare vegetables.
- Repeat in cycle every few days (normally 7, 10, 14, or 28 days) and are generally use in institutions
- Authorizes the sale of all types of beer, wine, and malt beverages for consumption off the premises in original containers
thousands of hotels/motels and restaurants located in more than 4,000
cities. Solicitations from restaurant operators are accepted.
is considered a violation when they interfere with the employee's work
performance or create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working
share of the market that a business has. The average number of guests
who would, if all other things were equal, eat at any of the competing
restaurants. You must divide the number of potential guests in a
catchment area by the number of competing restaurants. The market share
goal is to be the leader in the market segment.
- A blending of techniques and ingredients of two cuisines
organization to which employees or job applicants may appeal if they
feel they have been discriminated against. Applies to discrimination
based on race, sex, religion, color, national origin, veteran status,
age, mental or physical disabilities.
- Hors d'oeuvres, soup, seafood, entrée, grillades (grilled meat), legumes, salads, desserts
the cost of the ingredients and multiplies by a factor of 3 to obtain a
food cost percentage of 33. For example, if cost of ingredients is
$3.24, selling price would be $9.75 ($3.24 x 3=$9.75)
- Authorizes for the sale of all types of alcoholic beverages for consumption off the premises in original, sealed containers.
- 1. Same disadvantages as sole proprietorsips.
2. In addition, each partner can create debts for the partnership
3. Each partnership interest is an asset that can under certain circumstances be subject to legal claims of an individual partner's creditors or other claimants.
4. Partnerships can be expected to dissolve someday (death, disagreement, etc.)
degree of caution and concern for the safety of himself/herself and
others an ordinarily prudent and rational person would use in the
- Damages recovered in payment for actual injury or economic loss
- 3, 10
- 1. Opens the way for double taxation (if so an S corporation can be used)
- Expenses that change proportionately to fluctuations in sales (Ex. Food and beverage costs)
the sale on the licensed premises of beer and other malt beverages with
an alcoholic content of 4 percent or less by weight.
- World's leading consumer based reviews on restaurants
standards and the standards of fill of container are concerns. The FDA
also requires labeling on most food items containing several
ingredients. The common or usual names of all ingredients, listed in
descending order of their presence by weight, must be on the container.
All foods shipped interstate come under the jurisdiction of the FDA.
service (not table service), fresh made to order, high food quality
ingredients, priced in between QSR and Casual, upgraded decor, not drive
through, carry out (Ex. Panera, Chipotle)
area (less than 100 seats), Low table turnover, Independently
owner/operated, Professional chefs, High quality products and service,
Skilled workers, Devoted management, Heavy wine sales, Priced for
exclusivity (Ex. Seasons 52)
person is in charge of all things related to the kitchen, which usually
includes menu creation, management of kitchen staff, ordering and
purchasing of inventory, and plating design.
dishwashing system in which there are three compartments, the wash,
rinse, and sanitize; the wash is a brush with 110 degrees water with
detergent; the rinse is for removing the soap from the item being
washed, because detergent may make the sanitizing agent less effective;
the third compartment is used to removed bacteria and germs, and can be
either 171 degrees or higher, or use a diluted chemical. the rubber mat
commis is a basic chef in larger kitchens who works under a chef de
partie to learn the station's responsibilities and operation. This
may be a chef who has recently completed formal culinary training or is
still undergoing training
- 1. Bureaucratic rules and procedures can slow response times
2. Not always in tune with market changes
3. Little or no room for creativity
4. Less "local driven"
5. Long-term contract
6. As good as worst chain member
capital is required than building or buying. The beginner reduces the
investment and, should the venutre fail, reduces loss. Signing it
obligates the signer to come up with with the payments for the entire
period, and if they cannot can sublet.
- 1. Assistance in opening and operating the business
2. Franchisor-sponsored training and materials
3. Greater exposure and higher revenue due to extensive advertising and name recognition
4. Lower costs due to volume purchasing
5. Tested operating procedures
"to taste with relish". Is a sample of the chef's best dishes. Served
in several courses showcasing the chef's flair for combining flavors and
- Gross Profit
fees to the franchisor (4-6% weekly), must maintain business and
quality standards, Improve the leasehold, lease or purchase equipment,
hire employees and operate, Pay 2.5-3.5% national advertising fee
weekly, pay additional local marketing fees
percentage of the product that you can actually use. Servable weight
(edible or usable after cooking & trimming)/Original weight (as
purchased & before cooking/trimming)
method of computing a product's selling price so that the price
contributes to the gross income even if a contribution to net income is
not possible and labor costs must not be too much and when combined food
and labor cost should not go above 55-60% of sales. (Ex. cost-based
would be $21 for fish so need to do contribution) S & D +/or Loyalty
and recommends restaurants and hotels. The stars are based on five
criteria: quality of products, mastery of flavor and cooking,
personality of the cuisine, value of the money, and constistancy between
and Apertif. Flavored with herbs, roots, flowers, barks. These wines
can be sweet and dry. Normally enjoyed before a meal to stimulate
- Divide total (actual) guests, who purchased a meal, by # of restaurants in area
- Any venture where tow or more persons endeavor to make a profit. Taxes are the same as with a sole proprietorship.
- Family life cycle
- Table service where there are no sections and servers fend for themselves to get tables.
this approach, the best menu items are those that have the highest
contribution margin per unit and the highest sales. By combining
food-cost percentage, contribution margin, and sales volume you can find
the "prime" items which have a low food cost % and a high contribution
margin weighted by sales volume.
- The difference btween the sales price and the cost of the item.
- Balance Sheet
- 1. Tell the Truth
2. Bend the rules-you can bend it in order to give better service
3. Listen actively, almost agressively
4. Put pen to paper-A letter or email after a conversation can confirm details or say thanks
5. Master the moments of truth-Pay attention to details, customers will notice
6. Be a fantastic fixer-Apologize, listen and empathize, fix the problem quickly and fairly, offer atonement, keep your promise, follow up
7. Never underestimate the value of a sincere thank you
menu items added to maintain or boost sales. By keeping consumer
interest stimulated, can increase market share and profit.
- More straight forward serving approach. (Ex. Will you have dessert?)
- Involves a customer or client and an employee. The customer or client may harass the employee or the other way around.
a selection of several dishes from which patrons choose to make a
complete meal at a fixed price. The advantage of this menu is value. The
advantage for the restauranteur is the number of menu items is limited
- Software that records the data of each guest order and can be programmed to provide a variety of data on demand.
Advantages of a POS System:
-Elimination of arithmetic errors
-Improved guest check control
-Increased average guest check
-Faster reaction to trends
-Reduced labor costs
-Reduced late charges
It is simple. You are required, for tax purposes, to keep a formal set
of books. The tax laws and regulations require you to keep those records
that will enable you to accurately report your income.
2. Because all the earnings are yours, there is no problem about setting a reasonable salary that could be questioned when doing business in the corporate form.
3. Funds can be withdrawn from the business, subject to their availability, without tax consequences.
4. The business can be discontinued or sold with minimal tax consequences, compared with those arising in connection with the corporate form.
- Share limited liability with no services performed
- Cost/Sales × 100
- Marketing focuses on the needs and satisfaction of customers; sales focuses on the distribution of products to customers.
- Prepares roasted and braised meats and their appropriate sauce.
because in many CA restaurants guests may order an item from the menu
at any time of the day, can have a seperate menu for each
meal-breakfast, lunch,dinner, and perhaps brunch.
- Fermented juice of freshly gathered grapes. Yeast enzymes convert grape sugars to alcohol and CO2
used to attract tourists'attention to a particular restuarant,
underlining the value and acceptability to a guest who may be traveling
in a foreign country where the food may be decidedly different.
servers look at the customer-server relationships as a battle of wits
w/ a guest as opponent. Object of the game: extract maximum tip
possible. At end of each evening, word is passed as to who received most
If servers pitted against each other & prizes for most tips, easy for dining room to degenerate into a game w/ guest as secondary participant. One way to ensure harmony among all restaurant's personnel - insist that tips be pooled.
- Liquor's alcohol content.U.S. proof - twice % of alcohol
(80 proof = 40% alcohol) . Beer 4-8% vs Wine 9-16%)
- Fair Market Share
- Authorizes the sale on the premises of all types of beer, wine, and malt liquor
lack of continuity which increases the need for training, Most don't
want to work there as a permanent career, more people who are not
motivated to want to learn job
greater depreciation during the early life of a building or equipment,
less depreciation later. A start-up business usually needs all the
depreciation dollars it can get. Rapid depreciation results in lower
taxes during the early years of the restaurant with greater after-tax
access product formulas and operational systems, Site evaluations,
training programs, operations manual, representative on site during
opening, periodic operations and on-going support, informative
publications, marketing and advertising support, site selection help,
assistance with building and design, help with opening, train managers
- Servers are given sections of the restaurant to serve to
- Any time a guest has an opportunity to form an impression about the hospitality organization
- Butchers meats, poultry and sometimes fish. May also be responsible for breading meats and fish.
- New cuisine-lighter with fewer calories
- To produce desired behaivor-attitudes and skills appropriate for producing food and service that pleases restaurant clientele.
and desires of guests in target market and trends, capability of cooks,
equipment capacity and layout, consistency and seaonsal availability of
menu ingredients, price and pricing strategy, nutritional value,
contribution theory, accuracy in menu, type of menu, actual menu items,
menu analysis, menu design and layout, standard recipes, food-cost
- More cash than needs to maintain market share
a fixed life for an item (seven years for an oven). The cost of the
item is divided by the expected life to arrive at the depreciation
- Expenses normally unaffected by changes in sales volume. (Ex. Real estate taxes, depreciation on equipment, insurance premiums)
- 1. Do not have to invest in capitol
2. Do not have to invest operating funds
3. Receive a fee upfront
4. Receive a monthly fee regardless
5. Every franchisee=more advertising exposure
6. Every franchisee=better economy of scale
sparkling white wine, sparking rose wine. Sparkling comes from addition
of CO2. 2nd fermentation in the bottle with methode champenoise.